Thursday, 31 December 2015

MCA3050- ADVANCED COMPUTER NETWORKS

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ASSIGNMENT

PROGRAM
MCA(REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER
THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
MCA3050- ADVANCED COMPUTER NETWORKS
CREDIT
4
BK ID
B1650
MAX. MARKS
60


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q. 1. Differentiate between Physical addresses and Logical addresses.

Answer:In simplest terms, an address generated by the CPU is known as a logical address. Logical addresses are also referred to as virtual addresses. From the perspective of a program that is running, an item seems to be located in the address provided by the logical address. Physical address (also called the real addresses) is the address seen by the memory unit and it allows accessing a particular memory cell in the main memory by the data bus.

The OSI model is a good place to start to learn





Q. 2. Describe about DWDM. Explain the components of a basic DWDM system

Answer:Short for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing, an optical technology used to increase bandwidth over existing fiber optic backbones.

DWDM works by combining and transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at different wavelengths on the same fiber. In effect, one fiber is transformed into multiple virtual fibers. So, if you were to multiplex eight OC-48 signals into one fiber, you would increase the carrying capacity of that fiber from 2.5 Gb/s to 20 Gb/s. Currently,







Q. 3. Describe about Peak cell rate (PCR) and Sustained cell rate (SCR).

Answer: If a service (or application) wishes to use a broadband network (an ATM network in particular) to transport a particular kind of traffic, it must first inform the network about what kind of traffic is to be transported, and the performance requirements of that traffic. The application presents this information to the network in the form a traffic contract.








Q. 4. Describe the following:
a) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol

Answer:Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4. The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340 (2008).



b) Broader Gateway Routing Protocol (BGP)
Answer: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing






Q. 5. Write short notes on:

a) Cryptography: Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients

b) Encryption:In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interception, but denies the message


c) Decryption:Decryption is the reverse process to Encryption. Frequently, the same Cipher is used for both Encryption and Decryption. While Encryption creates a Ciphertext from a Plaintext, Decryption creates a Plaintext from a Ciphertext. The process of decoding data that has been encrypted into a secret format.



d) Cryptanalysis: Cryptanalysis refers to the study of ciphers, ciphertext, or cryptosystems (that is, to secret code systems) with a view to finding weaknesses in them that will permit retrieval of the plaintext from the ciphertext, without necessarily knowing the key or the algorithm. This is known as breaking the cipher, ciphertext, or cryptosystem.

Cryptanalysis is the study of analyzing



e) Cryptology:Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory, and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis. Since the cryptanalysis concepts are highly specialized and




Q. 6. Differentiate between Single server queue and Multi-server queue

Answer: Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues. In queueing theory a model is constructed so that queue lengths and waiting time can be predicted.Queueing theory is generally considered a branch of operations research because the results are often used when making business decisions about the resources needed to provide a service. Queueing theory has its origins in research by Agner Krarup Erlang when

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MCA3040- TECHNICAL WRITING

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ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM
MCA
SEMESTER
3RD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
MCA3040- TECHNICAL WRITING
CREDIT
4
BK ID
B0954
MAX.MARKS
60

Q1. Write ten examples of what a technical writer writes.

Answer : Technical writing refers to a type of writing where the author outlines the details and operations of administrative, technical, mechanical, or scientific systems. The main goal of technical writing is to educate, direct, and give others the ability to use a certain system.

Forms of Technical Writing
Technical writing assignments normally take one of three forms:
·         End user documentation
·         Traditional technical writing
·         Technological marketing communications

Q2. Discuss what is primary audience and secondary audience.

Answer : Primary: Primary audience is the main body of viewers, which may also be known as the target audience. People who may be classed as primary audience would be Doctors, Teachers, Lawyers and others, whilst the secondary audience maybe people in careers such as Hairdressing, Sales Assistants, essentially common people who aren't in the scale of C1 TO C3 of the demographic scale would also be mainly students. 


Secondary audience: secondary audience are viewers who fall outside the demographic scale of C1 to C3 but still listens to the station,





Q3. Explain the following.

1. Structural Clash
Answer : Most systems have a mix of dependent and non-dependent functions. Where there are dependencies, a numbered hierarchical structure for the user information is obvious.

Where the functions are non-dependent, a non-linear or horizontal structure makes more sense.

But on paper, you


2. What is Information Chunk?
Answer : A chunk is a fragment of information which is used in many multimedia formats, such as PNG, IFF, MP3 and AVI.

Each chunk contains a header which indicates some parameters (e.g. the type of chunk, comments, size etc.) In the





3. How do Chunks work?
Answer : Step 1: Start at the highest level.
Use a chunking strategy while determining the content hierarchy of a course. Determine how modules, lessons and topics will be organized into a logical and progressive order.

Start with large chunks of
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MCA3030 - LINUX OS

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ASSIGNMENT

PROGRAM
MCA(REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER
THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
MCA3030 - LINUX OS
CREDIT
2
BK ID
B1563
MAX. MARKS
30


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q. 1. Draw and explain different layers of Linux Operating System.

Answer:Conceptually, the Linux operating system is similar to an onion. It consists of many layers, one on top of the other. At the very core is the interface with the hardware. The operating system must know how to communicate with the hardware or nothing can get done. This is the most privileged aspect of the operating system.

Because it needs to access the hardware



Q. 2. What are run levels? Explain in detail.

Answer:Runlevel is a mode of operation in one of the computer operating systems that implement Unix System V-style initialization. Conventionally, seven runlevels exist, numbered from zero to six; though up to ten, from zero to nine[citation needed], may be used. S is sometimes used as a synonym for one of the levels. Only one runlevel is executed on startup; run levels are not executed one after another, i.e. either the runlevel 2, 3 or 4 is executed, not more of them sequentially or in any other order.


Q. 3. Describe the following:
a) File encryption

Answer: File Encryption means providing security for files that reside on media, in a stored state. Those are files that are resting on our hard drives, usb drives or any other type of digital media storage. Those are files that are usually not meant to be sent through network, they are stored locally, being encrypted and temporarily


b) Email encryption

Answer: Email encryption is encryption of email messages to protect the content from being read by other entities than the intended recipients. Email encryption may also include authentication. Email is prone to disclosure of information. Most emails are currently transmitted in the clear (not encrypted). By means of some available tools, persons other than the designated recipients can read the email contents. Email



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MCA3020- ADVANCED DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

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FALL 2015 ASSIGNMENT


PROGRAM
MCA(REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER
THIRD
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
MCA3020- ADVANCED DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
CREDIT
4
BK ID
B1650
MAX. MARKS
60


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions


1. Differentiate between Two-Tier client/server databases and Multi-tier client/server databases.
Answer: Two-Tier Architecture:

The two-tier is based on Client Server architecture. The two-tier architecture is like client server application. The direct communication takes place between client and server. There is no intermediate between client and server. Because of tight coupling a 2 tiered application will run faster.




2. Explain the physical query plan operators. What is the significance of Iterators?

Answer: A plan represents how data flows from a child operator to a parent operator in the form of a tree structure. Query execution flow can be read from right to left and from top to bottom.
In this article we’ll discuss some common and important operators like Index seek/scan, Join (Nested, Merge, and Hash), etc., which are useful to interpret a graphical execution plan and troubleshoot any performance issue due to a




3. Differentiate between Serialisability and Recoverability.

Answer: Serializability

Serializability is the classical concurrency scheme. This helps to ensures that a schedule with regard to performing executing concurrent transactions is equivalent to one that executes the transactions serially in some order. It assumes that all accesses





4. Discuss about Parallel query processing. How parallel-execution works?
Answer: When Oracle runs SQL statements in parallel, multiple processes work together simultaneously to run a single SQL statement. By dividing the work necessary to run a statement among multiple processes, Oracle can run the statement more quickly than if only a single process ran it. This is called parallel execution or parallel processing.

Parallel execution dramatically reduces response time for data-intensive operations on large databases typically associated with decision support systems (DSS) and data warehouses. Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), clustered systems, and



5. Differentiate between homogeneous and heterogeneous Database.

Answer: A DDBMS may be classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous. In a homogeneous system, all sites use the same DBMS product. In a heterogeneous system, sites may run different DBMS products, which need not be based on the same underlying data model, and so the system may be composed of relational, network, hierarchical and object-oriented DBMSs.



Homogeneous systems are much easier to design and





6. Write short notes on ODMG standards. What are the various components of ODMG-93?

Answer: The ODMG standard builds upon the existing OMG, SQL-92, INCITS (formerly ANSI) programming language standards, and JavaSoft’s Java specification to define a framework for application portability between compliant data storage products. The standard’s functional components include an Object Model, an Object Definition Language, an Object Query Language, and Language Bindings to Java, C++, and Smalltalk.

The two primary benefits of the ODMG

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MCA3010 –Financial Management and Accounting


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FALL 2015, ASSIGNMENT
Masters in Computer Application (MCA) - Semester 3

MCA3010 –Financial Management and Accounting

4 Credits (Book ID: B1624)
(60 Marks)

Answer All the Questions. Each question carries equal marks. (6 x 10 = 60)

1. Explain the process involved in accounting. What are the objectives of accounting?
Answer :As implied earlier, today's electronic accounting systems tend to obscure the traditional forms of the accounting cycle. Nevertheless, the same basic process that bookkeepers and accountants used to perform by hand are present in today's accounting software.

ACCOUNTING CYCLE :

An accounting cycle is a complete sequence


2. Briefly explain the role of management accounting. Also describe the functions of management accounting.
Answer : Management accounting is an internal business function that includes the recording and reporting of a company's financial transactions. The accounting department also supports management in different business operations, providing analysis and support for different decisions and investments.
Financial Reporting
Management accountants work at the




3. What is fund flow analysis? What are the objectives of analysing flow of fund?
Answer : Funds flow statement is an important financial tool, which analyze the changes in financial position of a firm showing the sources and applications of its funds. It provides useful information about the firm's operating, financing and investing activities during a particular period. The following points highlight the importance of funds flow statement.

1. Funds flow statement helps in identifying the change in level of current assets investment and current liabilities financing.


4. What is cash flow statement and how is the cash flow statement subdivided?

Answer : Complementing the balance sheet and income statement, the cash flowstatement (CFS), a mandatory part of a company's financial reports since1987, records the amounts of cash and cash equivalents entering andleaving a company. The CFS allows investors to understand how acompany's operations are running, where its money is coming from, andhow it is being spent. Here you will learn how the CFS is structured andhow to use it as



5. What are the merits of budgets?

Answer : Define goals and objectives
Align corporate goals with regards to markets, sales levels, margins, manning, cost levels and capital investment with your budgets.
Think about and plan for the future.
Compels management to think about the future. Management should look ahead and set out plans for each business unit, anticipating change


6. Describe the essential features of budgetary control.

Answer : There are two types of control, namely budgetary and financial. This chapter concentrates on budgetary control only. This is because financial control was covered in detail in chapters one and two. Budgetary control is defined by the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants (CIMA) as:

"The establishment of budgets relating the

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Wednesday, 30 December 2015

MCA5010 - WEB TECHNOLOGIES

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[ FALL, 2015 ] ASSIGNMENT

PROGRAM
Master of Science in Information Technology(MSc IT)Revised Fall 2011
SEMESTER
3
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
MIT302-WEB TECHNOLOGIES
CREDITS
4
BK ID
B1547
MAX. MARKS
60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q1. Describe the following protocols:

a) IP
Answer : The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.


b) HTTP
Answer: The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. It is a generic, stateless, protocol which can be used for many tasks beyond its use for hypertext, such as name servers and distributed object management systems, through extension of its request methods, error codes and headers. A feature of HTTP is the typing and negotiation of data representation, allowing systems to be built independently of the data being transferred.
HTTP functions as a







c) FTP
Answer: FTP is a client-server protocol that relies on two communications channels between client and server: a command channel for controlling the conversation and a data channel for transmitting file content. Clients initiate conversations with servers by requesting to download a file. Using FTP, a client can upload, download,





d) SMTP

Answer: SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving e-mail. However, since it is limited in its ability to queue messages at the receiving end, it is usually used with one of two other protocols, POP3 or IMAP, that let the user save messages in a server mailbox and download them periodically from the server. In other words, users typically use a program



Q2. a) What are the features of XML? Explain.
b) Describe XML declaration

Answer:The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. It is classified as an extensible language because it allows its users to define their own elements. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of structured data across different information systems, particularly via the Internet. It is used both to encode documents and serialize data.
XML is a framework for defining


Q. 3. List and explain the Components of XML processor.

Answer: When XML is processed, usually there is more to it than one input, on transform, and one output. Rarely is the input in exactly the right format, and rarely can the output be put right where it belongs. And seldom is the transformation which does not require lookups or including data from other sources.

·         XML Processing Control Structures: In addition to being able to route queries by Path, conditions can be forced to emit warnings or even to stop the pipeline with an error. This is valuable where you want to validate some data flowing into or out of steps.
·         XML Processing with Validates: Both Salonika


Q4. Explain how to fetch data from XML to HTML. Give an example

Answer: It is possible to design a HTML form structure such that it embeds all data content and structure of some XML data such that the XML data are displayed in the fields of the HTML form. The HTML form and the XML data are then logically equivalent in terms of the contents of the XML data. It is then possible to convert automatically between them from a web browser with a single program for any XML data.



Q. 5. Describe five different categories of PHP Operators.

Answer:Operators are a special type of symbols, which are used for calculation and comparison in a programming language. Operators are also used to operate on values. There are six types operators in PHP, which are as follows:

Arithmetic Operators: These operators are used




Q. 6. Write short note on ASP.
Answer:ASP is also an abbreviation for application service provider.

An Active Server Page (ASP) is an HTML page that includes one or more scripts (small embedded programs) that are processed on a Microsoft Web server before the page is sent to the user. An ASP is somewhat similar to a server-side include or a common gateway interface (CGI) application in that all involve programs that run on the server, usually tailoring a page for the user. Typically, the script in the Web page at the server uses input received as the result of the user's request for the page to access data from a database and then builds or customizes the page on the fly before sending it to the requestor.

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