Sunday, 24 November 2013

QM0013- QUALITY MANAGEMENT TOOLS


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ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE FALL
2013
PROGRAM
MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) PGDTQMN – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
QM0013- QUALITY MANAGEMENT TOOLS
SEMESTER
3
BK ID
B1243
CREDITS
4
MARKS
60


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q1. Explain the following:
a) Flow diagram
b) Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
c) Causal Loop Diagram (CLD)
(Explanation of Flow diagram-4 marks, Explanation of VSM-3 marks, Explanation of CLD-3 marks) 10 marks
Answer.
A flow diagram is one of the basic tools used for improvement of any project. It gives a visual picture of a process being studied. The flow diagram is also called as flow chart. It is a graphic representation of a series of activities that define a process. There are several types of flow diagram that can be useful in an improvement effort. Some of them are:
·         Top-down flow diagram
·         Matrix or group (also known as „swim-lane flow diagram)
·         Complexity diagram (separating basic process functions from activities
·         due to waste, work flow, or poor quality)
·         Value system mapping

Q2. To find success in competition, a business needs to give importance to value creation. Explain value creation through Brand development, Creative Design and Lean Manufacturing.
(Value Creation through Brand Development-4 marks, Value Creation through Creative Design-3 marks, Value Creation through Lean Manufacturing-3 marks) 10 marks
Answer.
Value Creation through Brand Development
Famous brand names make a big difference in the marketplace. For example, clothes made of the same fabric, in the same style, and with the same workmanship are sold at vastly different retail prices because they have different brand names. Davis defines a brand as ‘an intangible but critical component of what a company stands for,’ and, as ‘a set of promises, it implies trust, consistency; and a defined set of expectations. The strongest brands in the world own a place in the consumer’s mind, and when they are mentioned almost everyone thinks of the same things.’ Mercedes-Benz stands for prestige and the ultimate driving experience while Ralph Lauren stands for classic looks, high status, and pride.



Q3. FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) is a means of identifying or investigating potential failure modes and related causes. Describe the different types of FMEA. What are the advantages and disadvantages of FMEA?
(Meaning of FMEA-2 marks, Types of FMEA-3 marks, Advantages of FMEA-2.5 marks, Disadvantages of FMEA-2.5 marks)10 marks
Answer.
Meaning of FMEA
FMEA is a product problem prevention methodology that can effectively interface with many engineering and reliability methods. Along with the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), it has become one of the most useful problem prevention tools in the product development process.
FMEA Types
There are four types of FMEA and they are system level, design level,




Q4. What are the features of Taguchi’s Contributions? Explain Quality Loss Function method and Robust Design.
(Features of Taguchi’s Contributions-3 marks, Explanation of Quality Loss Function and examples-4 marks, Explanation of Robust Design-3 marks)
Answer.
Features of Taguchi’s Contributions
Taguchi was renowned for developing various processes, to enhance quality of developed products and to decrease prices. This method was known as ‘’Taguchi’s method, which was used as a process for assessing and enhancing improvements in the required features of products. Taguchi’s methods include the methodologies of both Statistical Process Control (SPC), as well as the statistical features of the method, procedure, strength, and the quality enhancement processes.
Taguchi believed in “Robust Design” techniques. Taguchi states that it is not only adequate to take out faults in product, but also to develop quality. He suggested that one must look at the design stage itself, from where the quality begins.
With the concept of “Design of Experiments” which directly affects performance of the product, Taguchi described, what the product requirement means and how it can lead to product


Q5. Explain the purpose of an Affinity diagram and list out its benefits. Write a procedure to create Relations diagram.
(Meaning of an Affinity diagram-2 marks, Purpose-2 marks, Benefits-2 marks, Meaning of Relations diagram-2 marks, Steps to create Relations diagram-2 marks) 10 marks
Answer.
Meaning of an Affinity diagram
Affinity diagram is a tool used to classify ideas and data. The tool is generally used in project management and allocates information to be arranged into groups for evaluation and analysis. Generally, an Affinity diagram is used to improve a brainstorm into the one that makes sense and can be utilized effortlessly.
Benefits of Affinity Diagrams
Affinity diagram is an innovative process, which is used by a group to collect



Q6. Process Mapping helps to identify the best performance measures and the major opportunities for improvement.
(Describe the types of Process Mapping. Explain the, major steps in Process Mapping, Meaning of Process Mapping, Types of Process Mapping, Major steps in Process Mapping)10 marks
Answer.
Process Mapping
Process mapping is an important visual display that represents, ‘who does what’ within an organization. It helps to identify the best performance measures and the major opportunities for improvement. Process mapping is used by the Six Sigma, black belt, or green belt. It helps in two important aspects of the Six Sigma method. They are:
1. It helps in the initial stage of the process where, a true analysis of how things are done currently is developed. This is very important to create an objective case for process improvement.
2. It helps in the improvement stage. This stage is essential to prototype, experiment, communicate, and ultimately explain how process improvements affect the new methods adopted to


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QM0011- PRINCIPLES & PHILOSOPHIES OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT


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ASSIGNMENT
DRIVE FALL
2013
PROGRAM
MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) PGDTQMN – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
QM0011- PRINCIPLES & PHILOSOPHIES OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT
SEMESTER
3
BK ID
B1241
CREDITS
4
MARKS
60


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q1. Defining quality in manufacturing organizations is often different from that of services. State the differences between manufacturing and service organization’s with regard to Quality. What are the Costs involved with respect to Quality.
(Differences-5 marks, Costs involved with respect to Quality-5 marks)10 marks
Answer.
Differences between Manufacturing and Service Organizations
Defining quality in manufacturing organizations is often different from that of services. Manufacturing organizations produce a tangible product that can be seen, touched, and directly measured. Examples include cars, CD players, clothes, computers, and food items. Therefore, quality definitions in manufacturing usually focus on tangible product features. The most common quality definition in manufacturing is conformance, which is the degree to which a product characteristic meets preset standards. Other common definitions of quality in manufacturing include performance – such as acceleration of a vehicle; reliability – that the product will function as expected without failure; features – the extras that are included beyond the basic characteristics; durability – expected operational life of the product; and serviceability – how readily a product can



Q2. Deming’s 14 Points pose a challenge for many firms to figure out how to apply them in a meaningful way that will result in continual improvement. Discuss Deming’s 14 Points.
(Listing of Deming’s 14 Points-4 marks, Explanation-6 marks) 10 marks
Answer.
Deming’s 14 Points
Deming's business philosophy is summarized in his famous "14 Points," listed below. These points have inspired significant changes among a number of leading US companies striving to compete in the world's increasingly competitive environment. But the 14 Points pose a challenge for many firms to figure out how to apply them in a meaningful way that will result in continual improvement. The 14 points are given below:
1. Constancy of purpose: Create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of products and service to society, allocating resources to provide for long range needs rather than only short term profitability, with a plan to become competitive, to stay in business,



Q3. Discuss the Contribution of W. A Shewhart. Describe the PDCA cycle.
(Contribution of W. A Shewhart-5 marks, Explanation of PDCA cycle-5 marks) 10 marks
Answer.
Contributions of W.A. Shewhart
Therefore the significant contributions of Walter. A. Shewhart”s ideas developed into techniques/principles and applied into practice can be listed as:
1. Originator of the Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle – transformation process on which the Deming PDSA Cycle is also based.
2. Recognized the need to distinguish the variations into assignable and un-assignable causes. He studied randomness and recognized variability which exists in all manufacturing processes. In his opinion, reducing variability is equivalent to quality improvement





Q4. Explain the concept of Just-In-Time and Poka-Yoke.
(Explanation of the Concept of Just-In-Time-5 marks, Explanation of the Concept of Poka-Yoke-5 marks)10 marks
Answer.
Just-in-Time [Jit] Concept in Toyota Production System
Dr. Shingo and Mr. Taiichi Ohno have invented/ rediscovered the Just in Time system-which has become the backbone of the Toyota production system. The synergy created by this industrial revolution and its powerful effects which influenced the international economic order.

Just-in-Time (JIT) Production is all about supplying customers with what they want and when they want it and aims to minimize inventories by producing only what is required & when it is required. Orders are "pulled" through the system when triggered by customer


Q5. Explain the Excellence Maturity Model. What are the steps involved in achieving organizational excellence?
(Explanation of Excellence Maturity Model-3 marks, Listing the steps-2 marks, Explanation of the Steps involved in achieving organizational excellence-3 marks) 10 marks
Answer.
The Excellence Maturity Model
Self-assessment processes can be discouraging if organizations try it at an early stage of their journey to excellence. Many areas of improvement will be detected as it is only the initial stages of the organization. The excellence maturity model provides three phases to view the journey to excellence.
They are the following:
1. Gain control: In this stage, basic business and


Q6. Discuss the concept of Business Process re-engineering. Explain how to implement Business Process re-engineering.
(Meaning-2 marks, Relevance of BPR in Quality Management-3 marks, Implementation-5 marks)10 marks
Answer.
Business process re-engineering
Re-engineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance such as costs, quality, service and
speed.
Relevance of BPR in “Quality Management”
Many times in organizations, changes are required for Quality Improvement. Such changes might not be small change in operations but may include a complete process change. It may involve a complete redesign of business process for overall Quality improvement. The relevance of BPR is thus obvious.
1.       Process characteristics


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QM0010- FOUNDATION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT


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ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE FALL
2013
PROGRAM
MBADS – (SEM 3/SEM 5) / MBAN2 / MBAFLEX – (SEM 3) PGDTQMN – (SEM 1)
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
QM0010- FOUNDATION OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT
SEMESTER
3
BK ID
B1240
CREDITS
4
MARKS
60


Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q1. Explain Quality Social Approach and Quality Environmental Approach. (Explanation of Quality Social Approach, Explanation of Quality Environmental Approach) 5, 5
Answer: 
Quality Social Approach

The quality social approach is to provide quality in every dimension of life -, Heath, education, culture, family religion, environment, and society. Quality is as large as life itself. Quality needs betterment and improvement, free from all grudges well in all dimensions of society. A stable society is the outcome of quality. A global society of quality shall not have war, starvation fear and oppression. Quality social approach is to make organizations realize the need; to be aware of their social responsibilities, consider the effects, business can have on the local


Q2. What is a Quality Manual? How does it help in documentation? Explain the measurement of Quality. (Meaning of a Quality Manual, Explanation on how it helps in documentation, Measurement of quality) 3, 2, 5
Answer:  Meaning of a Quality Manual
An official document produced by a business that details how its quality management system operates. A typical quality manual will include the company's quality policy and goals, as well as a detailed description of its quality control system that might include staff roles and relationships, procedures, systems and any other resources that relate to producing high quality goods or services.

 How it helps in documentation

The working methods and procedures for planning and quality, and its achievement as applicable to different stages, right from design to delivery need to


Q3.
a. How is the Human Relation Theory different form the Classical Theory?
b. Briefly explain Quality inspection, Quality control and Quality Assurance.
[(Differences, Explanation (Quality inspection, Quality control and Quality Assurance)] 4, 6
Answer : 

Classical Theory
The classical theory model of organization reflects the scientific management approach developed by Frederick Taylor, the Classical theory of Henri Fayol and Max Weber‟s Bureaucracy theory. These collectively dominate the mainstream management thinking. Each of these approaches regards the design of organizations as a technical exercise and depends upon fragmenting or dissecting an organization into its component parts for analysis and efficient operation. The machine approaches to organization arose, as suggested, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth



B)
Quality Control:

Quality Control activities include inspection and testing of the products or services after they are produced and just before their delivery to the customers. The inspection and testing activities are carried out to check conformity of the product with specifications / requirements. If any of the products are not in conformance with the specifications, they are quarantined / segregated and the actions as specified (repair, re grade, scrap) are initiated.

Quality Assurance:


Q4. Explain the concept of Cost of Quality. Give a few examples of External and Internal Failure costs. [(Meaning of Cost of Quality, Components, Examples (External & Internal Failure costs)] 3, 3, 4
Answer:  

Cost of Quality
Cost accounting is a most important function in many companies. All organizations measure and report costs as a basis for control and improvement. This is true for both types of organizations – For profit and Not for profit. The concept of cost of Quality (COQ) has emerged in 1950s. The concept of Quality Costs is a means to quantify the total cost of Quality related efforts and deficiencies. This was first described by Armand V. Feigenbaum. Generally, the people have the perception that higher quality involves higher costs, either for buying better raw materials or


Q5. Discuss the importance of Knowledge Management. Explain the role of Quality in Knowledge Management. (Meaning of Knowledge Management, Importance of Knowledge Management, Role of Quality in Knowledge Management) 2, 3, 5
Answer: 

Knowledge Management
Concept:
Knowledge management constitutes, the practices applied in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute and enable implementation of perceptiveness and experiences. The experiences and insights are embedded in organizational processes and practices. It is the management of information, experiences, insights which helps to improve the process and enhance quality.

Knowledge is information in context to produce an actionable




Q6. Discuss the major Barriers/obstacles to Quality. Briefly explain some of the methods/ tools, techniques that can be deployed to overcome the barriers in an organization. (Barriers/Obstacles to Quality, Methods/tools) 5, 5
Answer:  
Barriers / Obstacles to Quality

v The barriers/obstacles to implement TQM seem endless. The barriers are found never-ending with plenty of issues. In fact it starts from top management itself and flows down to all working levels. This is so in all business sectors, whether they are manufacturing, services, government and even education.

v The question is: Is there any way to adopt TQM and finally overcome these barriers? Therefore, it is important for organizations to understand these barriers first and


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Saturday, 23 November 2013

MB0047- MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM


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ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE FALL
2013
PROGRAM
MBADS / MBAN2 / MBAHCSN3 / PGDBAN2 / MBAFLEX
SEMESTER
II
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
MB0047- MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
BK ID
B1630
CREDITS
4
MARKS
60

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1 A waiter takes an order at a table, and then enters it online via one of the six terminals located
in the restaurant dining room. The order is routed to a printer in the appropriate preparation
area, the cold item printer if it is a salad, the hot item printer if it is a hot sandwich or the bar
printer if it is a drink. A customer’s meal check-listing, bills the items ordered and the
respective prices are automatically generated. This ordering system eliminates the old three-
carbon-copy guest check system as well as any problems caused by a waiter’s handwriting.
When the kitchen runs out of a food item, the cooks send out an ‘out of stock’ message, which
will be displayed on the dining room terminals when waiters try to order that item. This gives
the waiters faster feedback, enabling them to give better service to the customers. Other system
features aid management in the planning and control of their restaurant business. The system
provides up-to-the-minute information on the food items ordered and breaks out percentages
showing sales of each item versus total sales. This helps management plan menus according to
customers’ tastes. The system also compares the weekly sales totals versus food costs,
allowing planning for tighter cost controls. In addition, whenever an order is invalidated, the
reasons for the invalidation are keyed in. This may help later in management decisions,
especially if the invalidations are consistently related to the food or the service. Acceptance of
the system by the users is exceptionally high since the waiters and waitresses were involved in
the selection and design process. All potential users were asked to give their impressions and
ideas about the various systems available before one was chosen.

a. What is the type of information system the above scenario is referring to?

Answer : The type of information system is management information system (MIS). A management information system (MIS) is an organized




b. How does this system helps later in management decisions related to food or service
based on the reasons for the invalidation which are stored .

Answer : An MIS helps decision making by providing timely, relevant and accurate information to managers. The physical components of an MIS include hardware, software, database, personnel and procedures. Management information is an important input for efficient performance of various managerial functions at different organization levels. Tactical decisions cover both planning and controlling. Technical decisions pertain to



c. How this system does helps in finding out the performance of the hotel form year to
year?

Answer : The information required to make such decision must be such that it highlights the trouble spots and shows the interconnections with the other functions. It must summarize all information relating to the span of control of the manager. The information required to make these decisions can be strategic, tactical or operational information. Examples of transaction processing systems include order tracking, order processing, machine




2. a. With the increase in technology the business processes have been frequently changed
and modified based on the upcoming requirement of the organization. What is this
type of concept called as?

Answer :  The process is business process reengineering. Reengineering is about radical change. Business process reengineering (BPR


b. Explain reverse engineering. How do you improve a process in BPR .

Answer: Reverse engineering :

Reverse engineering is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device, object, or system through analysis of its



3. a. While implementing MIS in any organization change can occur in number of ways.
List and explain the steps in the process as suggested by Lewin’s model.

Answer : This model states that organisational change involves a move from one static state via a progressional shift, to another static state. By recognizing these three distinct stages of change, you can plan to implement the change required. You start by creating the motivation to change (unfreeze). You move through the change process by promoting effective communications and empowering people to embrace new ways of working (


b. Compare between prototype approach and Life Cycle approach

Prototype approach:

Prototyping is the process of creating an incomplete model of the future full-featured system, which can be used to let the users have a first idea of the completed program .
1.It is Useful in open system where high amount of uncertainty about information certain information is there.
2.Necessary to try out some assumption in decision


Q. 4. Quality is abstract in nature. It varies among users and across industries. List and explain the
quality parameters with suitable examples. Also explain the effect of each quality parameters
on information processing.

Answer:  The parameters of a good quality are difficult to determine, however, the information can be termed as of a good quality if it meets the norms of impartiality, validity, reliability, consistency and age.

1. Impartiality:



Q. 5 Write short notes on 
a. Neural Networks
b. B2B model with an example
c. DSS Models
d. Administrative control
e. Distributed database

Answer : a. Neural Networks:

An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurones) working in unison to solve specific problems. ANNs, like people, learn by example. An ANN is configured for a specific application, such as pattern recognition or data classification, through a learning process. Learning in biological systems involves adjustments to the synaptic connections that exist between the neurones. This is true of ANNs as well.


Q. 6 A project is composed of 9 activities the three estimates of time in weeks for the activities are
given below in the following table.

ACTIVITY
Immediate
predecessors
Optimistic time
Most like time
duration 
Pessimistic
time
A
--
5
8
10
B
--
18
20
22
C
--
26
33
40
D
A
16
18
20
E
A
15
20
25
F
B
6
9
12
G
C
7
10
12
H
D
7
8
9
I
F,E
3
4
5
a. Draw a PERT Network
b. Determine the expected time and variance for each activity
c. Determine earliest and latest occurrence time of each event
d. Determine the critical path for the network

Answer :a.  PERT Network :







b. For determining the expected time and  variance for each activity :



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