Tuesday, 18 November 2014


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Q. 1. Any Four Questions(4X 10=40)
1. Hospital waste causing environmental pollution and leadingto negative recycling with serious medical and healthconsequences- Discuss at length.
Answer:Hospital is a place of almighty, a place to serve the patient. Since beginning, the hospitals are known for the treatment of sick persons but we are unaware about the adverse effects of the garbage and filth generated by them on human body and environment. Now it is a well established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings which are caused by the "Hospital waste" generated during the patient care. Hospital waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers, public and flora and fauna of the area. Hospital acquired infection, transfusion transmitted diseases, rising incidence of Hepatitis B, and HIV, increasing land and water pollution lead to increasing possibility of catching many diseases. Air pollution due to emission of hazardous gases by incinerator such as Furan, Dioxin, Hydrochloric acid etc. have compelled the authorities to think seriously about hospital

2. Keeping the Hospital staff equipped with latest knowledgein the new millennium in clinical, technical and managerialcompetence is the need of the hour. Identify some newmethods to achieve the objective.

3. List out the various areas of Hospital Administration. Reviewthem in your own style.
Answer: Hospital administration is the management of the hospital as a business. The administration is made up of medical and health services managers -- sometimes called health care executives and health care administrators -- and their assistants. Administrations range in size, and the duties of the administrator vary with the size and complexity of the hospital.
·         Range of Duties: Administrators are liaisons between hospital boards, other administrators and medical staff. They coordinate hospital activities and formulate its overall politices. Some administrators are in charge of hiring doctors and other staff, performing employee evaluations and directing staff meetings. They may also be responsible for the hospital's public relations and fundraising programs. Because administrators develop programs for teaching and research hospitals, they must keep up with the latest advances in medicine.
·         Administration Sizes: Large hospitals have several administrators and assistant administrators managing different departments while one administrator is in charge overall. In smaller hospitals, one administrator may be in

4. What do you understand by the term MBO? Apply theconcept to the Hospitals with appropriate examples.
Answer: Management by objectives (or MBO) is a personnel management technique where managers and employees work together to set, record and monitor goals for a specific period of time. Organizational goals and planning flow top-down through the organization and are translated into personal goals for organizational members. The technique was first championed by management expert Peter Drucker and became commonly used in the 1960s.
The core concept of MBO is planning, which means that an organization and its members are not merely reacting to events and problems but are instead being proactive. MBO requires that employees set measurable personal goals based upon the organizational goals. For example, a goal for a civil engineer may be to complete the infrastructure of a housing division within the next twelve months. The personal goal aligns with the organizational goal of completing

5. Based on your study, establish certain Managementtechniques for the administrative Improvement andAdministrative Reforms of Hospitals.
Answer:Administration or to be very specific,the Bureaucracy from a traditional point of view has always been change resistant,opaque and rigid. Therefore,in today's times,where the world is become a global village and the concept of Welfare State and Good Governance looms large it has become imperative to transform the administrative machinery and reform it for the best results in order for it to remain important and not become obsolete.Therefore, administrative improvement and reforms are a priority. So, today we will discuss this very important aspect of administration.
It is an artificial inducement of administrative transformation against resistance.A.F Leaman asserts that Administrative reforms are an effort to mitigate the gap between reality and what is desirable of the administration. And this transformation is for a

Case Studies(20X2=40)
Case No.1
Issues to be Discussed

Q. 1. Facts of the case.
Answer: The hospital's employment specialist assists applicants in applying for appropriate jobs based on their qualifications and communicates with them throughout the application process. In several departments, applicants undergo a peer interview to ensure that the appropriate candidate is selected for the position.
Once hired, new employees attend an orientation where they learn the importance of organizational values, expectations of employees, customer service, etc. The hospital's values play a crucial role in the culture of the organization, and employees are expected to continually exhibit these values and behaviors.

Q. 2. By making additional study, Analyse the means to achievethe major objectives as stated in the case.
Answer: Turnover in any company is normal. Exciting job offers or personal reasons cause many employees to turn in their resignations. However, when a high percentage of your employees choose to leave the company, you are faced with the consequences. High turnover rates result in your time spent finding a replacement and walking that individual through the training process. Additionally, your company’s productivity suffers as work is placed on hold until the new hire’s training is complete, or as the new person makes large errors while getting accustomed to the work. The hiring process and other productivity losses may also result in high, unnecessary costs.
·         Decrease turnover rate:When you create a job description for applicants, be accurate and truthful. Explain in detail what the job entails and do not be vague about the expectations of the position. Many employees accept job

Q. 3. How would you address the workforce problems as given inthe case effectively?
Answer: The organization's culture has created a pleasing environment for both employees and patients. Employees are on a first name basis with one another, they acknowledge each other when passing in the hall, and they always take time to help their colleagues.
This program strives to open the lines of communication between administration and employees by holding monthly luncheons with administrators and employees. Each month, several employees are selected at random to attend the luncheon. The luncheons give employees the opportunity to share ideas and concerns with administrators; administration's motto is "If you don't say it, I can't hear it." This ethic allows employees to have ownership in the

Case No 2
Hospital Waste Management: A Case Study ofChandigarh Administration
Issues to be discussed
Q. 1. Facts of the Case.
Answer: Hospital waste is the term used to denote unwanted material produced by various medical processes carried out in medical treatment and other laboratory procedures. Hospital wastes comprise both infectious and non-infectious wastes generated in the different sections of a hospital, which if not properly collected, transported or disposed-off, may cause cross-infections in the hospital and pose a major public health hazard and environmental pollution.
The “City beautiful”, Chandigarh has made the implementation of the bio-medical waste rule, 1998 possible by installation of incinerators in PGI, Medical College & Hospital, Sector-32 and in the process of starting incinerator in General Hospital, Sector-16, Chandigarh.
Private Nursing Homes also produce almost equal amount of Solid Waste and bio-medical waste, but they don’t have any independent facility available

Q. 2. Analyze the different categories of waste as discussed inthe case in your style by making additional study.
Answer: Hospital waste is the term used to denote unwanted material produced by various medical processes carried out in medical treatment and other laboratory procedures. Hospital wastes comprise both infectious and non-infectious wastes generated in the different sections of a hospital, which if not properly collected, transported or disposed-off, may cause cross-infections in the hospital and pose a major public health hazard and environmental pollution.
The waste can be classified into the following categories
1.       General Waste:This includes domestic type of

Q. 3. Comment on the framed categories which are 10 innumber.
Answer:Ten numbers of categories have been framed:
(i) Human anatomical waste: All human anatomical wastes and all wastes that are human tissues, organs, or body parts removed by trauma, during surgery, autopsy, birth, research studies, or another hospital procedure, and which are intended for disposal. Pathological waste differs from anatomical waste in that these are typically samples of tissues that are examined in a laboratory setting to understand the nature of the disease or make a diagnosis. For the most part, pathological waste refers to very small tissues sections and body material derived from biopsies or surgical procedures that are then examined in the lab. Anatomical wastes are typically distinguished as recognizable human organs, tissue and body parts, and may require special treatment under some state regulations. Some states do not consider hair, teeth and nails to be pathological/anatomical waste.
(ii) Animal waste: Many facilities have

Q. 4. How would you deal with the problem of Hospital wastemanagement (Add on to the suggestions given in the case)
Answer: Proper management of various types of waste is essential for the upkeep of hospital sanitation. Segregation at source, safe transfer, requisite treatment and disposal through cost effective technologies can bring about significant changes. Infectious waste from hospital and health care Establishments contain pathological wastes, used disposable, semi-wet products (the used blood bags etc.) This waste is often thrown into the community bins instead of being properly treated and disposed-off.
Presently in most Government hospitals and Pvt. Nursing Homes there is no specialized system of handling, collection, transportation and disposal of

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Hospital Administration

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                              Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724


SUBJECT: Hospital Administration


10 marks each

1. What is hospital and define Hospital Administration?

Answer : A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized staff and equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department. A district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care and long-term care. Specialised hospitals include trauma centres, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric problems (see psychiatric hospital), certain disease categories. Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses. The medical facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic. Hospitals have a range of departments (e.g., surgery, and urgent care) and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals will have outpatient departments and some will have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy, pathology, and radiology.

2. What do you mean by personnel administration in hospital?

Answer : A hospital is a bustling treatment center for patients, and a complex, interdisciplinary workplace for healthcare personnel. One person is responsible for keeping this symbiotic infrastructure running smoothly - the hospital administrator.

As the head of operations, a hospital administrator oversees clinical units, departments or an entire hospital. These professionals manage personnel, finances and facility practices according to a distinct set of policies and procedures established by trustees. They keep abreast of new laws and regulations in the industry and advances in medicine and medical technology. A hospital administrator also represents the institution she

3. What is the difference between hospital management and hospital administration?
Answer : The field of healthcare is growing by leaps and bounds, and the healthcare industry is estimated to contribute around six million new jobs to the workforce over the next decade. This represents a nearly 30 percent growth in jobs from the healthcare field alone. There are many different career paths that a student can take, whether your interest ultimately lies in healthcare administration jobs, healthcare management jobs, or some other facet of the medical and healthcare field. A great place to start can be earning a healthcare administration or healthcare management degree online or offline, which can prepare you to climb to the heights of your chosen career path, regardless of where you may choose to specialize or focus your efforts once you graduate.

However, because some terminology used in healthcare can sound surprisingly similar, including terms such as “administration” and “management,” it can be helpful as well to learn before you enroll in an advanced degree program what the

4. What is the scope of hospital administration for MBA students?

Answer : ALL labour that uplifts humanity has dignity and importance and should be undertaken with painstaking excellence, said Martin Luther King, Jr. The Master’s in Hospital Administration course is meant for those people who share these sentiments, because job responsibilities range from giving astute guidance in administration to managing the daily affairs of the hospital.

Efficient management can play a role in saving more lives. With the advent of medical tourism and rapid development in technologies the health sector is emerging as one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Several corporates and business organisations have forayed into the healthcare sector, thus resulting in the healthcare delivery system becoming more organised, systematic and efficient. Hence, the healthcare industry needs professionals who can handle these challenges.

The programmes enable individuals to take

5. What is medical negligence ?

Answer : Medical negligence is improper, unskilled, or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician, dentist, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care professional.

Negligence is the predominant theory of liability concerning allegations of medical malpractice, making this type of litigation part of Tort Law. Since the 1970s, medical malpractice has been a controversial social issue. Physicians have complained about the large number of malpractice suits and have urged legal reforms to curb large damage awards, whereas tort attorneys have argued that negligence suits are an effective way of compensating victims of negligence and of policing the medical profession.

A person who alleges negligent medical malpractice must prove four elements:
(1) a duty of care was owed by the physician;
(2) the physician violated the applicable standard of care;
(3) the person suffered a compensable injury

6. Explain the need for man power planning in hospital.

Answer : Manpower Planning is the primary function of the hospital human resource manager but before the stats filling individual jobs, he should consider the overall management problem of making the best use of available human resources. Just as the controller of finance budget for the best use of financial resources, the human resources manager is basically concerned with budget for the best use of human resources. Manpower planning call for the integration of information, formulation of policies and forecasting of future requirements of human resources so that the right personnel are available for the right job at the right time.

Manpower planning starts with the analysis of the future needs of the hospital and its objectives. It determines organization structure, decides what jobs have to be filled and what their requirements are.Short-term manpower planning –two year

7. Classify hospitals with examples

Answer : 1.   (1)   Hospitals are classified as general hospitals, convalescent hospitals, hospitals for chronic patients, active treatment teaching psychiatric hospitals, active treatment hospitals for alcoholism and drug addiction and regional rehabilitation hospitals, and are graded as,

    (a)   Group A hospitals, being general hospitals providing facilities for giving instruction to medical students of any university, as evidenced by a written agreement between the hospital and the university with which it is affiliated, and hospitals approved in writing by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons for providing

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Q.1. Elaborate on the system of HR Planning. Outline the steps to be undertaken by organizations to effectively engage in HR Planning.

Answer : The human resources department is a critical component for employees in any business, regardless of its size. This support system is responsible for everything from payroll to hiring a new employee. Human resource planning is an extended part of this system, and is used to ultimately structure and meet organizational goals.
While a traditional human resource role serves as an administrative control function, human resource planning develops strategies for matching the skills and size of the workforce to organizational needs. In other words, the planning system specifically recruits, trains and restructures the staff/personnel needed to meet business objectives and any changes within the external environment.

Three main responsibilities are important to complete in order to prepare for the planning process. These responsibilities include forecasting the demand for labor, performing a supply analysis, and balancing supply and demand considerations.

Q.2. Discuss the various ways in which the commitment of errors in performance appraisal can be minimized.
Answer : Many managers handle performance appraisals quite poorly. And the result is not only an unpleasant meeting, but one where the manager and his or her staff member never quite understand each other, never quite appreciate the other's point of view, and never quite settle on appropriate goals for the coming year.

It's almost inevitable that the staff member will end up less happy and less productive than he or she was before!

In fact, there are five big mistakes that managers often make in conducting performance appraisals. Fortunately, these mistakes are easily avoided once you make a conscious effort to avoid them.

Mistake #1: Waiting For The Performance Appraisal To Give Feedback
This is the biggie, and all too common. It's

Q.3. The nature and scope of the Human Resource Management Systems keeps on evolving with the changes in the external and internal environments of organizations. Elaborate on the same. { marks : 20 }
Answer : Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.
Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the

Q.4. what are some of the traditional and current sources of recruitment used by organizations? What are their pros and cons?
Answer : The balanced selection of the recruitment sources to be used in the organization is a key success factor for the effective recruitment process. The organization can choose from many recruitment sources as it can optimize the recruitment process. The recruitment sources drive the costs, length and quality of the job candidates (including the number of job resumes needed to handle with).

The organization has to choose the recruitment sources, which work best for the industry. The organization has to find the unique recruitment sources for the key job positions as it attracts the best job candidates sooner than the competitors in

Q.5. How does HRM enable organizations to adapt to the dynamic changes in the environment? Illustrate with examples.
Answer : Human resource management is not a new concept is an adaptation and transforming of older ideas from the twentieth century about the management of people. As we know, people have been working as part of group for thousands of years. Huge numbers of workers were constructing ancient monuments, such as the pyramids or Great Wall of China. An appropriate management, motivate people, and the right strategic make the work effective and successful. In addition human resource management is defined ‘as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets- the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives’ (Armstrong )

Q.6. As an HR executive, how would you go about devising HRIS for a mid – sized organization?

Answer : Once you've established which HRIS model of delivery works best for your business, you need to figure out just what kind of system you want to invest in. The easiest way to divide HRIS vendors is to split them into two categories: suite and niche. Vendors of suite systems offer brawny, many-faceted software applications comprised of multiple HR functions, each of which can be utilized as either an independent module or as part of a more universal package. Vendors of niche solutions, meanwhile, cater to one specific area of HR management, like time and attendance, payroll, or staffing.

Both niche and suite solutions have their advantages – it just depends which strategy best suits the needs of your company. A large HRIS suite

Q 7 . Discuss the various principles and purposes of promotion and types and purpose of transfers.

Answer : In simpler terms, promotion refers to upward movement in present job leading to greater responsibilities, higher status and better salary. Promotion may be temporary or permanent depending upon the organizational requirement. According to Clothier and Spriegel,

“promotion is the transfer of an employee to a job which pays more money or one that carries some preferred status.”

In the corporate sector employee promotions doesn't make much difference as that of in government sector. In the government the word promotion is the ultimate desire for an employee for the service rendered by him in the organisation and this is the only way for an employee career development in the government sector. Promotion is the ultimate motivating factor for any employee because moves employee forward in hierarchy of concern organisation added with additional responsibility, higher respect, honour, with increase in grade pay and allowances.

In countries like India, employee promotions are withhold by employers if any enquiry is pending on concerned employee due to his disobedience of duties or misuse of his powers especially in government departments. Until clearance of enquiry pending before COMPETENT AUTHORITY on concerned employee promotion will not

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