Saturday, 6 February 2016

Elective: Port and Shipping Management

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National Institute of Business Management

Chennai - 020
DBA / PGDBA

Elective: Port and Shipping Management

Attend any 4 questions.  Each question carries 25 marks
(Each answer should be of minimum 2 pages / of 300 words)


Question.1.        Explain the application of Logistics Hub to container port.

Answer: Since the hub-and-spoke concept was introduced to the aviation market after the US airline deregulation in the late 1970s, it becomes a primary distribution model employed by leading international logistics companies. This pattern drives the companies to consolidate shipments on the large scale at major terminals (i.e. hub) and to redistribute the smaller scale of shipments to their respective destinations via radial links (i.e. spoke). In the field of logistics and supply chains, however, the hub concept has been often introduced in various terms in accordance with functionality: for example, logistics centre, logistics zone, freight terminal, distribution centre and warehouse. Such a heterogeneous terminology on the concept of logistics hub seems still in usage by practitioners and academics alike.




Question.2.        Explain the strategic significance of maritime logistics value.

Answer:Maritime logistics value (i.e. improving operational efficiency and service effectiveness in maritime logistics) is one of the strategic goals that maritime operators (i.e. port operators, shipping lines and freight forwarders) want to achieve. Due to the lack of a systematic approach towards maritime logistics management, however, existing literature has yet to clearly define what strategic direction should be taken to accomplish such goals. This thesis proposes that a knowledge-based strategy is the most desirable alternative, having diagnosed its effectiveness in creating and sustaining maritime logistics value. The thesis consists of theoretical and empirical sections. The theoretical part reviews the work of maritime logistics and operators within the context of global logistics and strategic management theory (especially, knowledge-based and inter-organisational relationship perspectives).




Question.3.        Explain Hinterland transport system design.

Answer:Some of the load units arriving at seaports are transhipments for other seaports, while others have inland destinations. The hinterland transportation system enables load units to be transhipped between seaports and inland destinations. The term “hinterland” is often referred to as the effective market or the geo-economic space in which the seaport sells its services. A similar definition is presented by van Klink and van den Berg (1998) who define hinterland as the interior region served by the port. The logistics related to the hinterland involves many actors and activities, and requires intense collaboration and coordination to work effectively and efficiently. Hence, hinterland logistics and transportation have become a crucial part of ensuring an efficient supply chain.




Question.4.        Explain Port and Logistics Chains, its changes in organizational effectiveness.

Answer:

Question.5.        Write an essay of logistics performance of supply chain oriented ports.

Answer:A port logistics chain (PLC) embraces all the global logistics chains that operate through a seaport, including different stakeholders involved in the international trade processes, such as the importers and exporters, the Port Authority, the terminal operators, customs, customs agents, transport companies (ground and maritime), freight forwarders, empty container parks, etc. The PLC faces important challenges for the integration of those supply chains processes and the huge number of public and private stakeholders.

Question.6.        Explain the impact of supply chain integration on shipping firm performance.

Answer:



25 x 4=100 marks
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Assignments of Two year MBA Program Semester - III

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National Institute of Business Management

Ist Floor, Swathandrya Samara SmrithiBhavan, Nandavanam Road
Palayam P.O. Trivandrum – 695 033
E-mail: admin@nibmglobal.com
0471- 4014294, 4014298

Assignments of Two year MBA Program 
Semester - III
Total Marks:100


1.Students are requested to go through the instructions carefully.
2.The Assignment is a part of the internal assessment.
3.Marks will be awarded for each Assignment, which will be added to the total marks. Assignments carry equal marks.
4.Assignments should submit in your 'portal' on/before the 'completion date' mentioned.



Management Research

Question.1.You are in charge of promoting a new flavour of tooth paste yet to be produced in a tooth paste manufacturing unit which sampling techniques will you use to get the required data from a population.

Answer:There are various sampling techniques available for us. The most commonly used sampling techniques are simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling and systematic sampling. All these methods are used according to the demand of the situation. Usually cluster sampling is used when sampling from the various geographical zones is required. Simple random sampling is usually used when highest accuracy level has to be achieved however cost associated with simple random sampling over the large population size is quite high. Stratified sampling is used when groups of data elements are selected randomly from various bigger heterogeneous groups. All these methods are used depending upon the nature and demand of the research.

We would do consumer research to see what people thought of your product. Prepare a questionnaire about launch of new toothpaste.......question like

1. Which other brand they are using any why
2. Whether they want fluoride base or chloride base.
3. Whether it is mint based or not - their preference
4. What they are expecting from our company
















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Quality Systems Management



Question.2.What are the points you will keep in mind about the concept of quality control and inspection if you are the quality systems manager of a rubber products manufacturing unit?

Answer:Quality control (QC) is a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a manufactured product or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the requirements of the client or customer. QC is similar to, but not identical with, quality assurance (QA). QA is defined as a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a product or service under development (before work is complete, as opposed to afterwards) meets specified requirements. QA is sometimes expressed together with QC as a single expression, quality assurance and control (QA/QC).

In order to implement an effective QC program, an enterprise must first decide which specific standards the product or service must meet. Then the extent of QC actions must be determined (for example, the percentage of units to be tested from each lot). Next, real-world data must be collected (for example, the percentage of units that fail) and the results reported to management personnel. After this, corrective action must be decided upon and taken (for example, defective units must be repaired or rejected and poor service




















Business Environment


Question.3.Imagine yourself as a new businessman what are the objectives of business that you will keep in mind if you have to launch a new business.

Answer:In business, not every good idea succeeds. The dot-com experience showed that even if you get millions to fund your business, your business could still fail if all the elements for success are not present. Selling pet food on the Internet is a dumb idea; hence, it is no wonder that Pets.com perished. WebVan.com closed one of its warehouses, after learning that delivering groceries 80 miles away from a distribution center is not such a bright idea after all.

So what do we need to do to successfully jumpstart a new business? I think here are six steps to launch a new business successfully.

1. Provide a benefit.

A new business stands a greater chance at success if it is responding to a need of a consumer. Our potential customers will buy our products or service if they see that it provides some benefits to them. We must be able to respond to their "what is it for me" question.

As a new business owner, our main task is to understand











Quantitative techniques for Business Analysis


Question.4.Suppose you are heading a business unit in India which are the points about statistics you will keep in mind for doing business profitably. In other words what is the relevance of Business statistics in you venture.

Answer:The basic objective with which Business Statistics is used for making inferences that is reaching a decision or conclusion and predictions and assumptions. In business, decision making is a very critical phase and is used in all the fields of business. The use of statistics makes comparisons and analysis easier which relatively quickens the decision-making process and also makes it a little easier. By using statistics the relationships of different variables can be studied. Statistics makes it possible to do what-if analysis. Regression analysis is used for studying the relationship between variables and the dependency of one upon the other. Research shows that the use of statistical models improves the decision making process. By using probabilities, different predictions can also be made in business.








Managerial Economics


Question.5.Suppose you are the Marketing Manager of Bayer & Company Ahmedabad, which are the techniques you will apply in forecasting demand of a product yet to be manufactured.

Answer:All business firms must forecast the demand for their products or services to plan to survive and grow. The economics literature provides them a list of demand forecasting techniques to help the manager to plan. Demand forecasting assumes greater importance, in view of the changes coupled with information revolution happening almost in all countries, to enable optimal utilization of the available resources in ultimately transforming the economy smoothly. Thus it becomes crucial to evaluate the validity of the popular demand forecasting techniques. This paper attempts to examine some popular demand-forecasting techniques, as to whether they do what they claim to be doing, so that the practicing managers can exercise enough caution in using these demand forecasting techniques.

Effective workforce planning for specific enterprises involves determining which actions are needed to achieve business objectives, identifying the types and quantities of skills that are necessary to accomplish those actions, determining how those skills may vary from the skills that are currently available, and developing strategies for closing the














Service Marketing


Question.6.Selective Food Marketing has answered the call and was created to represent the way a foodservice broker should. As our industry rapidly evolves, yet condenses, the demand for qualified and experienced representation is great. Selective Food service Marketing’s philosophy is to execute our principals’ agenda with thorough operator penetration and effective service to our distributors. A conservative prospectus of manufacturers, but go to market aggressively to succeed. What is your vision to represent a food manufacturing company in a way that they are proud to say that they have Selective Food Marketing services?

Answer:Food Marketing: Food products often involve the general marketing approaches and techniques applied the marketing of other kinds of products and services. In food marketing, topics such as test marketing, segmentation, positioning, branding, targeting, consumer research, and market entry strategy, for example, are highly relevant. In addition, food marketing involves other kinds of challenges–such as dealing with a perishable product whose quality and availability varies as a function of current harvest conditions. The value chain–the extent to which sequential parties in the marketing channel add value to the product–is particularly important. Today, processing and new distribution options provide increasing increasing opportunities available to food marketers to provide the consumer with convenience. Marketing, services, and processing added do, however, result in significantly higher costs. In the old days, for example, consumers might have baked their own bread from locally grown flour. Today, most households buy pre-manufactured bread, and it is estimated that the farmer receives only some 5%








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SUBJECT : INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                 Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724
LOGO

 








SUBJECT : INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Total Marks: 100

Attempt all questions
All questions carry equal marks.(10 marks)


Question. 1. What is International human resource management? Explain nature ofinternational human resource management.

Answer: As a result of market globalisation it has become increasingly important to explore the international issues related to management as organisations seek to achieve sustainable competitive advantage through their human resource. The study of, and subsequent practice in, International Human Resource Management focuses on the need to be culturally sensitive in our management of people in a cross-cultural multi-national environment.

The programme has been developed for students who wish to, or already work within, a multi-cultural business. For those who are new to the field of Human Resource Management, the programme offers the opportunity to develop your knowledge and professional practice so that you are equipped with the ‘tools and techniques’ necessary to embark on a career in International Human Resource Management: for such students





Question. 2. Explain role of multiculturalism in international human resource management.

Answer: The globalization of business, increased mobility of labor across geographic borders is leading to multiculturalism among several countries. For instance, in countries such as Canada, US, UK, India, and Australia, multiculturalism is increasingly becoming an integral part of the national identity. In addition, cross-border mergers and acquisitions (eg. Arcelor-Mittal) and deployment of teams for certain projects, require organizations to draw from a pool of human resources from different countries.

The globalization of the business environment that is being driven by technological and economic factors is resulting in an ever-increasing number of cross-cultural interactions in the workplace. Recent estimates indicate that there are over 1000,000 firms with international operations, and they have annual revenues in excess of $3500 billion. Not surprisingly, the growth in the number of firms with international operations has been




Question. 3. Explain significance of HRM in cross-border mergers & acquisitions.

Answer:Mergers and acquisitions (M&) are increasingly becoming a strategy of choice for companies attempting to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. However, not all M&As are a success. To analyze the effectiveness of HRM strategies as a mechanism for achieving synergies, we incorporate the post-acquisition resource flows and the need for structural integration into Aguilera and Dencker’s (2004) framework that considers both national institutional environments and the strategic fit between the acquisition rationale and the human resource management (HRM) strategy. By taking into account the post-acquisition resource flows, we can identify which acquisitions will require greater levels of interdependence between the resources of the acquirer and the target.




Question. 5. What is staffing of international business?

Answer:Human resource management in international business presents issues that are different from those in domestic or local business. The nature and characteristics of international business are more complicated than domestic or local business. As such, it is necessary to account for different types of human resource management issues in international business. HR managers must also choose the right staffing policy approach based on the needs of the organization. Effectively addressing the various types of human resource management issues and deciding on the most suitable staffing policy approach leads to success in HRM in international business.

Staffing (or finding, choosing and placing) good employees is difficult even at home. However, it becomes more difficult in other countries. For


Question. 6. What is international compensation management?

Answer: Designing and developing a better compensation package for HR professionals for the international assignments requires knowledge of taxation, employment laws, and foreign currency fluctuation by the HR professionals. Moreover, the socio-economic conditions of the country have to be taken into consideration while developing a compensation package. It is easy to develop the compensation package for the parent country national but difficult to manage the host and third country nationals. When a firm develops international compensation policies, it tries to fulfills some broad objectives:

·         The compensation policy should be in line with the structure, business needs and overall strategy of the organization.



Question. 7. Write a detailed note on ethics & social responsibility.

Answer:Social responsibility is an ethical theory, in which individuals are accountable for fulfilling their civic duty; the actions of an individual must benefit the whole of society. In this way, there must be a balance between economic growth and the welfare of society and the environment. If this equilibrium is maintained, then social responsibility is accomplished.

The theory of social responsibility is built on a system of ethics, in which decisions and actions must be ethically validated before proceeding. If the action or decision causes harm to society or the environment then it would be considered to be socially irresponsible.

Moral values that are inherent in society create a



Question. 8. What is performance management?

Answer:Performance management is a process by which managers and employees work together to plan, monitor and review an employee’s work objectives and overall contribution to the organization. More than just an annual performance review, performance management is the continuous process of setting objectives, assessing progress and providing on-going coaching and feedback to ensure that employees are meeting their objectives and career goals.

An effective performance management system will:

·         Be job specific, covering a broad range of jobs in the organization
·         Align with your organization’s strategic direction and culture
·         Be practical and easy to understand and use
·         Provide an accurate picture of each





                                                                                                                                       

Question. 9. Write down the importance of training & development.

Answer:Training presents a prime opportunity to expand the knowledge base of all employees, but many employers find the development opportunities expensive. Employees also miss out on work time while attending training sessions, which may delay the completion of projects. Despite the potential drawbacks, training and development provides both the company as a whole and the individual employees with benefits that make the cost and time a worthwhile investment.

Addressing Weaknesses: Most employees have some weaknesses in their workplace skills. A training program allows you to strengthen those skills that each employee needs to improve. A development program brings all employees to a higher level so they all have similar skills and knowledge. This helps reduce any weak links




Question. 10. Write a detailed note on international industrial relations.

Answer:Industrial relations is a multidisciplinary field that studies the employment relationship. Industrial relations is increasingly being called employment relations or employee relations because of the importance of non-industrial employment relationships; this move is sometimes seen as further broadening of the human resource management trend. Indeed, some authors now define human resource management as synonymous with employee relations. Other authors see employee relations as dealing only with non-unionized workers, whereas labor relations is seen as dealing with unionized workers. Industrial relations studies examine


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SUBJECT: INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

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AEREN FOUNDATION’S                                                                 Maharashtra Govt. Reg. No.: F-11724
LOGO

 








SUBJECT: INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

Total Marks: 100

1) Attempt all questions
2) All questions carry equal marks. (10 marks)

Question.1. What is exchange rate determination and forecasting?

Answer: There are numerous methods of forecasting exchange rates, likely because none of them have been shown to be superior to any other. This speaks to the difficulty of generating a quality forecast. However, this article will introduce you to four of the most popular methods for forecasting exchange rates.

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): The purchasing power parity (PPP) is perhaps the most popular method due to its indoctrination in most economic textbooks. The PPP forecasting approach is based off of the theoretical Law of One Price, which







Question.2. Explain financial management in a global context.

Answer:Financial management refers to the efficient and effective management of money (funds) in such a manner as to accomplish the objectives of the organization. It is the specialized function directly associated with the top management. The significance of this function is not seen in the 'Line' but also in the capacity of 'Staff' in overall of a company. It has been defined differently by different experts in the field.

The term typically applies to an organization or company's financial strategy, while personal finance or financial life management refers to an individual's




Question.3. Explain in detail:

Question.a) Accounting implications of international activities

Answer: The IASB-FASB convergence effort involves two kinds of projects. The first type includes short-term projects that are intended to remove many of the numerous individual differences between International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, which include International Accounting Standards (IAS) issued by the predecessor body to the IASB) and US GAAP. Examples of current and proposed short-term convergence efforts involve the accounting treatments of nonmonetary exchanges, discontinued operations, income taxes and interim reporting. The second type of convergence project involves longer term joint IASB-FASB projects and co-ordinated projects that are intended to provide major pieces of improved accounting guidance. Examples of the latter include the joint projects on revenue





Question.b) Tax implications of international activities

Answer: Regardless of how the program is ultimately structured, the school faces a number of various international tax matters.  Questions that should be considered are summarized below.

Taxable and Legal Presence

    Does the activity create a “taxable presence” in a foreign country?

A foreign country may reserve the right to tax the income that the school generates in the foreign jurisdiction.  However, the United States has





Question.4. What is forwards, swaps and interest Parity?

Answer: A theory in which the interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the differential between the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rate. Interest rate parity plays an essential role in foreign exchange markets, connecting interest rates, spot exchange rates and foreign exchange rates.

Calculating Forward Rates: Forward exchange rates for currencies refers to exchange rates at a future point in time, as opposed to spot exchange rates, which refers to current rates. An understanding of forward rates is fundamental to interest rate parity, especially as it pertains to arbitrage. The basic equation for calculating forward rates




Question.5. Explain short-term financial management in a multinational corporation.

Answer: Short-term financial management involves budgeting and making financial plans for periods of one year or less. Some long-term financial obligations such as mortgage payments have to be factored into the equation, but short-term financial management typically involves balancing short-term income and expenses. Businesses, governments and individuals have to create short-term financial plans to ensure that obligations to creditors are paid and that sufficient funds are raised to cover other upcoming costs.

Within the business arena, short-term financial management involves managers making departmental budgets that detail short-term costs such





Question.6. Explain long-term borrowing in the global capital markets.

Answer: Capital markets are financial markets for the buying and selling of long-term debt or equity-backed securities. These markets channel the wealth of savers to those who can put it to long-term productive use, such as companies or governments making long-term investments. Capital markets are defined as markets in which money is provided for periods longer than a year. Financial regulators, such as the UK's Bank of England (BoE) or the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), oversee the capital markets in their jurisdictions to protect investors against fraud, among other duties.






Question.7. What are different currency options?

Answer: A contract that grants the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell currency at a specified exchange rate during a specified period of time. For this right, a premium is paid to the broker, which will vary depending on the number of contracts purchased. Currency options are one of the best ways for corporations or individuals to hedge against adverse movements in exchange rates.

Investors can hedge against foreign currency risk by purchasing a currency option put or call. For example, assume that an investor believes that


Question.8. Explain currency and interest rate futures.

Answer:In India, the trading in the newly launched derivates or more popularly the interest rate futures began on August 31, 2009 clocking trading volumes of Rs 276 crore in their first day of trade. A dream debut, indeed! But what is this index rate futures all about? Who is eligible and where can you trade them? Read on to find out the answers for these and much more about interest rate futures touted to be the next big thing in Indian derivates.

What is interest rate futures trading?






Question.9. Write a detailed note on the foreign exchange market in India

Answer:The foreign exchange market (forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized market for the trading of currencies. This includes all aspects of buying, selling and exchanging currencies at current or determined prices. In terms of volume of trading, it is by far the largest market in the world.[1] The main participants in this market are the larger international banks. Financial centres around the world function as anchors of trading between a wide range of multiple types of buyers and sellers around the clock, with the

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