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Sunday, 14 September 2014

BT0063-Mathematics for IT

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ASSIGNMENT

SUMMER
2014
PROGRAM
BSc IT
SEMESTER
1
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BT0063-Mathematics for IT
CREDIT
4
BK ID
B0950
MAX. MARKS
60



Q.1 (i) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and B = {2, 4, 6, 8}. Find A – B and B – A.
Answer: A-B = {1, 3, 5} , B-A = {8}

(ii) In a group of 50 people, 35 speak Hindi, 25 speak both English and Hindi and all the people speak at least one of the two languages. How many people speak only English and not Hindi?
How many people speak English?
Answer: n (A U B )= people who speak in either Hindi and English.
Given people speak at least one of the languages.
n (A U B) = 50.
n (A ^ B) =people who speak in both the languages = 25
n (A) = people who speak in English. = x


Q.2 (i) Express 7920 in radians and (7π/12) c in degrees.
(ii) Prove that (tan θ + sec θ – 1)/ (tan θ + sec θ +1) = Cos θ / (1-sin θ) = (1+sin θ)/ Cos θ
Answer: (i) The conversion is 180O= π radian
So 79200 = (7920

(ii). Solution:-
(tan θ + sec θ – 1)/ (tan θ + sec θ +1) =(1+sin θ)/ Cos θ
If (tan θ + sec θ – 1)/ (tan θ +


Q.3 (i) Define continuity of a point                      
(ii) Test the continuity of the function f where f is defined by f(x) = {x-2/|x-2| if x ≠ 2, 7 if x = 2.

Answer: (i) Definition of Continuity
Let a be a point in


               
(ii) Test the continuity of the function f where f is defined by f(x) = {x-2/|x-2| if x ≠ 2, 7 if x = 2.
Solution:-L.H.L =limx tends to (x-2)/|x-2|
Put x = 2-h , h=0
By applying the limits

Q.4 Solve dy/dx = (y+x-2)/(y-x-4).
Answer:dy/dx = (y+x-2)/(y-x-4) -------------------------------- (i)
Put y = vx
Diff w.r.t “x”
dy/dx = v.1+x.dx/dx

Q.5 (i) a bag contains two red balls, three blue balls and five green balls.
Three balls are drawn at random. Find the probability that
a) The three balls are of different colors’.
b) Two balls are of the same color.
Let nCk = number of ways to pick up k items from a set of n items.
Of course you should already know that nCk+=+n%21%2F%28k%21%2A%28n-k%29%21%29 (*)
Bag consists of 2 red balls (R), 3

Q.6 Solve:  2x + 3y + 4z = 20, x + y + 2z = 9, 3x + 2y + z = 10.
Answer: These equations are written as

[2 3 4                                     [20
1 1 2                 =                 9
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BT0066-Database Management Systems

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Assignment

PROGRAM
B.Sc IT
SEMESTER
FIRST
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BT0066-Database Management Systems
CREDIT
3
BK ID
B0950
MAX.MARKS
60

Note – Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.
Q.1 what do you mean by entity and attributes in E-R diagram? Explain the importance of E-R diagram.
Answer: - Entity in E-R diagram:- An entity is something that exists in itself, actually or hypothetically. It need not be of material existence. In particular, abstractions and legal fictions are usually regarded as entities. In general, there is also no presumption that an entity is animate.
Sometimes, the word entity is used in a general sense of a being, whether or not the referent has material existence, e.g., is often referred to as an entity with no corporeal form (non-physical entity), such as a language. It is also often used to refer to ghosts and other spirits.
The word entitative is the adject


Q.2 Explain the following terms:
·         Relational database schema
·         Entity Integrity
·         Referential Integrity
·         Referential Integrity Constraints
Answer: - Relational database schema:- A database schema of a database system is its structure described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS) and refers to the organization of data as a blueprint of how a database is constructed (divided into database tables in case of Relational Databases). The formal definition of database schema is a set of formulas (sentences) called integrity constraints imposed on a database. These integrity constraints ensure compatibility between parts of the schema. All

Entity Integrity: - In the relational data model, entity integrity is one of the three inherent integrity rules. Entity integrity is an integrity rule which states that every table must have a primary key and that the column or columns chosen to be the primary key should be unique and not NULL.[1]
Within relational databases using SQL,

Referential Integrity:- Referential integrity is a property of data which, when satisfied, requires every value of one attribute (column) of a relation (table) to exist as a value of another attribute in a different (or the same) relation (table).
For referential integrity to hold in a relational database, any field in a table that is declared a foreign key can contain either a null value, or only

Referential Integrity Constraints:- It refers to the integrity between master and detail table. If the information from the master table is deleted then the corresponding record from the detail table should also get deleted as this information has no meaning without master table.  Referantial integrity deals in parent-child relationship between tables.


Q.3 What do you mean by indexed sequential file organization? Explain with the help of an example.
Answer: - Indexed sequential file organization:-
·         An indexed file contains records ordered by a record key. Each record contains a field that contains the record key. The record key uniquely identifies the record and determines the sequence in which it is accessed with respect to other records. A record key for a record might be, for example, an employee number or an invoice number.
·         An indexed file can also use alternate indexes, that is, record keys that let you access the file using a different logical arrangement of
·          
Q.4 What is the system catalog in RDBMS? Also explain what information is stored in the system catalog.
Answer:- system catalog in RDBMS: The database catalog of a database instance consists of metadata in which definitions of database objects such as base tables, views (virtual tables), synonyms, value ranges, indexes, users, and user groups are stored.[1][2]
The SQL standard specifies a uniform means to access the catalog, called the INFORMATION_SCHEMA, but not all databases follow this, even if they implement other aspects of the SQL standard. For an example of database-specific metadata access methods, see Oracle metadata. -
What is stored in the catalog -- an overview
·         Metadata
·          

Q.5 What do you mean by semantics of TRC queries? Give an example of TRC queries.
Answer:- semantics of TRC queries:- Tuple calculus is a calculus that was introduced by Edgar F. Codd as part of the relational model, in order to provide a declarative database-query language for this data model. It formed the inspiration for the database-query languages QUEL and SQL, of which the latter, although far less faithful to the original relational model and calculus, is now the de-facto-standard database-query language; a dialect of SQL is used by nearly every relational-database-management system. Lacroix and Pirotte proposed domain calculus, which is closer to first-order logic and which showed that both of these calculi (as well as

Q.6 Explain vertical framentation with the help of an example.
Answer: - Fragmentation:-Fragmentation involves breaking a relation (table) into two or more pieces either horizontally (Horizontal Fragmentation) or vertically (Vertical Fragmentation) or both (Hybrid), mainly to improve the availability of data to the end user and end user programs.
Let us start this section with an example. Consider XYZ bank, which is currently having around 1000 branches all over the country. Assume that it maintains its database at single location, say New Delhi (Head office - Central Site). Now the problem is that, all the requests generated from any part of the country can only be handled at the central site (Ne
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BT0064-LOGIC DESIGN

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Assignment

PROGRAM
B.Sc IT
SEMESTER
FIRST
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BT0064-LOGIC DESIGN
CREDIT
4
BK ID
B0948
MAX.MARKS
60

Note – Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.
Q.1 Add the following 4-bit binary numbers.
 i. (0110)2 + (0101)2 = (1011)2
 ii. (0101)2 + (0101)2= (1010)2
Add the following 8-bit binary numbers
iii. (01001110)2 + (00111100)2 = (10001010)2
iv. (10011101)2 + (10001111)2= (100101100)2
Answer:-  Binary Arithmetic:-The arithmetic operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, performed on the binary numbers is called binary arithmetic . In computer systems, the basic arithmetic operations performed on the binary numbers is -
·         Binary Addition, and
·         Binary Subtraction,
In the following subsections, we discuss the binary

Q.2 Draw the symbol for XNOR & X-OR and explain the truth table?
Answer:- - XNOR:- The XNOR gate (sometimes spelled "exnor" or "enor" and rarely written NXOR) is a digital logic gate whose function is the inverse of the exclusive OR (XOR) gate. The two-input version implements logical equality, behaving according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if both of the inputs to the gate are the same. If one but not both inputs are HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results.
Alternatives:-

Q.3 What are adders? Explain half adders and full adders with circuit diagrams.
Answer: Adders:-
 In electronics, an adder or summer is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. In many computers and other kinds of processors, adders are used not only in the arithmetic logic unit(s), but also in other parts of the processor, where they are used to calculate addresses, table indices, and similar operations.
Although adders can be constructed for many numerical representations, such as binary-coded decimal or excess-3, the most common adders operate on binary

Q.4 what is ring counter? Explain it working with the help of diagram.
Answer: - ring counter:- A ring counter is a type of counter composed of a type circular shift register. The output of the last shift register is fed to the input of the first register. The hamming distance of a Johnson counter is 1, the hamming distance of an Overbeck counter is 2.
There are two types of ring counters:
·         A straight ring counter or Overbeck counter connects the output of the last shift register to the first shift register input and circulates a single one (or zero) bit around the ring. For example, in a 4-register one-hot counter, with initial register values of 1000, the repeating pattern is: 1000, 0100, 0010, 0001, 1000... . Note that one of the
·          
Q.5 Explain the concept of resolution in digital and analog multi meters.
Answer: - concept of resolution in digital meters
1. Accuracy
Accuracy essentially represents the uncertainty of a given measurement because a reading from a digital multimeter (DMM) can differ from the actual input. Accuracy is often expressed as:
(% Reading) + Offset
or
(% Reading) + (% Range)

Q.6 What are shift registers? Explain serial in serial out shift register.
Answer: - shift registers:- In digital circuits, a shift register is a cascade of flip flops, sharing the same clock, in which the output of each flip-flop is connected to the "data" input of the next flip-flop in the chain, resulting in a circuit that shifts by one position the "bit array" stored in it, shifting in the data present at its input and shifting out the last bit in the array, at each transition of the clock input.
More generally, a shift register may be multidimensional, such that its "data in" and stage outputs are themselves bit arrays: this is implemented simply by running several shift registers of the same bit-length in parallel.

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BT0065-C Programming and Data Structures

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Assignment

PROGRAM
B.Sc IT
SEMESTER
FIRST
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BT0065-C Programming and Data Structures
CREDIT
3
BK ID
B0949
MAX.MARKS
60

Note – Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.
Q.1 Why data types are required in any programming language? Explain in detail the primary data types of C language.
Answer: - Data types are required in any programming language:- a data type or simply type is a classification identifying one of various types of data, such as real, integer or Boolean, that determines the possible values for that type; the operations that can be done on values of that type; the meaning of the data; and the way values of that type can be stored.
Data types are used within type systems, which offer various ways of defining, implementing and using them. Different type systems ensure varying degrees of type safety.
Almost all programming languages explicitly include the notion of data type, though different languages may use different terminology. Common data types

Q.2 Explain the structure of the C program.
Answer: - Structure of the C program:- Structure is the collection of variables of different types under a single name for better handling. For example: You want to store the information about person about his/her name, citizenship number and salary. You can create these information separately but, better approach will be collection of these information under single name because all these information are related to person.

Structure Definition in C

Q.3 i. What is recursion?
ii. Differentiate between recursion and iteration.
iii. Write a program to generate Fibonacci series using recursion.
Answer:- Recursion:-
Recursion is the process of repeating items in a self-similar way. For instance, when the surfaces of two mirrors are exactly parallel with each other, the nested images that occur are a form of infinite recursion. The term has a variety of meanings specific to a variety of disciplines ranging from linguistics to logic.
 The most common application of recursion is in mathematics and computer science, in which it refers to a method of defining functions in which the function being defined is applied within its own definition.

Q.4 What do you mean by dynamic memory allocation? Explain the three functions for dynamic memory allocation in C language.
Answer: - Dynamic memory allocation:- Dynamic memory allocation is when an executing program requests that the operating system give it a block of main memory. The program then uses this memory for some purpose. Usually the purpose is to add a node to a data structure. In object oriented languages, dynamic memory allocation is used to get the memory for a new object.
The memory comes from above the static part of the data segment. Programs may request memory and may also return previously dynamically allocated memory

Q.5 Write C program to implement stack using arrays.
Answer:- C program to implement stack using arrays:-



Q.6 What do you mean by binary tree? Explain the storage representations of binary tree.
Answer: - Binary tree:- a binary tree is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two children, which are referred to as the left child and the right child. A recursive definition using just set theory notions is that a (non-empty) binary tree is a triple (L, S, R), where L and R are binary trees or the empty set and S is a singleton set.[1] Some authors allow the binary tree to be the empty set as well.[2]
From a graph theory perspective, binary (and K-ary) trees as defined here are actually arborescences.[3] A binary tree may thus be also called a bifurcating arborescence[3]—a term which actually appears in some very old programming books,[4] before the
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BT0062-Fundaments of IT

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Assignment
PROGRAM
B.Sc IT
SEMESTER
FIRST
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BT0062-Fundaments of IT
CREDIT
4
BK ID
B0946
MAX.MARKS
60

Note – Answer all questions. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.
Q.1 Write a short notes on fourth and fifth generation computers
Answer: - fourth generation computers:- In this generation, there were developments of large-scale integration or LSI (1000 devices per chip) and very large-scale integration or VLSI (10000 devices per chip). These developments enabled the entire processor to fit into a single chip and in fact, for simple systems, the entire computer with processor; main memory and I/O controllers could fit on a single chip.
Core memories now were replaced by semiconductor memories and high-speed vectors dominated the scenario. Names of few such vectors were Cray1, Cray X-MP and Cyber205. A variety of parallel architectures developed too, but they were mostly in the experimental stage.
As far as programming languages are concerned, there were development of high-level languages like FP or functional programming and PROLOG (programming in logic). Declarative programming style was the basis of these languages where a programmer could leave many details to the compiler or runtime system. Alternatively languages like


  Q.2 Differentiate between primary memory and secondary memory.
 Primary memory:-
1)      Primary storage, also known as main storage or memory, is the area in a computer in which data is stored for quick access by the computer's processor. The terms random access memory (RAM) and memory are often as synonyms for primary or main storage. Primary storage is volatile and can be contrasted with non-volatile secondary storage, also known as auxiliary storage. The terms main storage and auxiliary storage originated in the days of the mainframe computer to distinguish the more immediately accessible data storage

Q.3 what is cache memory? Explain the importance of cache computer memory.
Answer: - cache memory:- A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average time to access data from the main memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the data from frequently used main memory locations. Most CPUs have different independent caches, including instruction and data caches, where the data cache is usually organized as a hierarchy of more cache levels.
Overview:- When the processor needs to read from or write to a location in main memory, it first checks whether a copy of that data is in the cache. If so, the processor immediately reads from or writes to the cache, which is much faster than reading from or writing to main memory.
Most modern desktop and server CPUs have at least

Q.4 Write the steps to insert one or more columns and one or more cells in MS Excel.
Answer: - steps to insert one or more columns and one or more cells in MS Excel:-
Step 1:-
Insert Cells into an Excel Worksheet
Having to insert extra cells to an Excel worksheet from time to time is a common practice: data gets forgotten and must be added, space must be made for new data, or existing data gets moved about when the sheet is reorganized.

Q.5 What is sound multimedia? Explain common sound file formats?
Answer: - sound multimedia:- Sound is perhaps the most sensuous element of multimedia. It is meaningful "Speech" in any language from a whisper to a scream. It can provide the listening pleasure of music, the startling accent of special effects, or the ambience of a mood-setting background. How you use the power of sound can make the difference between an ordinary multimedia presentation and a professionally spectacular one
Common sound file formats:- An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. The bit layout of the audio

Q.6 What is Internet? What is the use of it Internet in the modern world.
Answer: - Internet:- The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide. It is an international network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government packet switched networks, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing and
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