Monday, 24 February 2014

MCA 2nd Sem WINTER 2013 Solved Assignments


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WINTER 2013 ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM MCA (REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER SECOND
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA2050- COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
CREDIT 4
BK ID B1648


Q. No.1 Differentiate between Process and Thread.
[5+5]
Answer:

Concept of process
In operating system terminology, instead of the term ‘program’, the notion of process is used in connection with execution. It designates a commission or job, or a quantum of work dealt with as an entity. Consequently, the resources required, such as address space, are typically allocated on a process basis. Each process has a life cycle, which consists of creation, an execution phase and termination.
Process creation involves the following four main actions:

2 What are instruction sets? Give the classification of the various instruction sets.
[5+5]
Answer: An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), is the part of the computer architecture related to programming, including the native data types, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O. An ISA includes a specification of the set of opcodes (machine language), and the native commands implemented by a particular processor.


3 What do you mean by hazards? Explain the types of hazards
[4+6]
Answer:
Hazards are the situations that stop the next instruction in the instruction stream from being executed during its designated clock cycle.

Hazards reduce the performance from the ideal speedup gained by pipelining. In general, there are three major categories of hazards that can affect normal operation of a pipeline.
1. Structural hazards (also called resource conflicts): They occur from resource conflicts when the hardware cannot support all possible combinations of instructions in simultaneous overlapped execution. These are caused by multiple accesses to memory performed by segments. In most cases this problem can be resolved by using separate instruction and data memories.

2. Data hazards (also called data dependency)They occur when an instruction depends on the result of

4 What do you understand by parallel processing? Describe Pipeline Processing.
[3+7]
Answer: Parallel processing is basic part of our everyday life. The concept of parallel processing is so natural in our life that we use it without even realising. When we face some crisis, we take help from others and involve them to solve it more easily. This cooperation of using two or more helpers to make easy the solution of some problem may be termed parallel processing. The aim of parallel processing is therefore to solve a particular problem more rapidly, or to enable the solution of a particular problem that would otherwise be not solvable by one person. The principles of parallel processing are, however, not recent, as evidence suggests that the computational devices used over 2000 years ago also used this.

5 Differentiate between unconditional and conditional branch.
[5+5]
Answer:
Unconditional Branch
This type of branch is considered as the simplest one. It is used to transfer control to a particular target. Let us discuss an example as follows:
branch target
Target address specification can be performed in any of the following ways:

6 Write short notes on:
a) Vector Length
b) Vector Stride
[5+5]
Answer: Vector length
Particularly, we have two cases in our hands:
 One in which the vector size is less than the vector register size, and·
 The second in which the vector size is larger than the vector register size.·

Let’s observe the easier of these two problems.

Handling smaller vectors: In case the vector size is less than 64, we have to permit the system to be aware that it should not function on all the 64 elements in the vector registers. This can be simply done 








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WINTER 2013 ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM MCA (REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER SECOND
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA2040- COMMUNICATION SKILLS



Q. No.1 what is nonverbal communication? Give five examples for non-verbal communication
5+5
10
Answer:
Non-verbal communication means the messages that do not contain words. In this type of communication, words are not used in the process of sending and receiving messages. You may wonder, “How is this possible?” It is a proven fact that most of our communication through words are laced with non verbal communication. They can be categorized as:
i) word-less communication like gesture; body language or posture; facial expression and eye gaze.

2 What are the prosodic features of speech?
Answer:
 Prosodic features (sometimes known as suprasegmental phonology) are those aspects of speech which go beyond phonemes and deal with the auditory qualities of sound. In spoken communication, we use and interpret these features without really thinking about them. There are various conventional ways of representing them in writing, although the nuances are often hard to convey on paper.

3. Define hearing and Listening. How is ‘hearing’ different from ‘listening’
4+6=10
Answer:
Hearing is a passive process. It is merely the detection of sounds around us. Normally, we come across ‘hearing’ in certain situations.
E.g.: When your lecturer reprimands you for some of your shortcomings, you just hear it without paying much attention.
Listening: It is an active process. It involves the conscious desire to determine the meaning of what is 





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WINTER 2013 ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM MCA (REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER SECOND
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA2030- OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING – C++


Q. No.1 Differentiate between Objects and Classes
[5+5]
Answer: An Object is a program representation of some real-world thing (i.e person, place or an event). Objects can have both attributes(data) and behaviours (functions or methods). Attributes describe the object with respect to certain parameters and Behaviour or functions describe the functionality of the object.
According to Pressman, Objects can be any one of the following:
a) External entities b) Things c) Occurrences or events d) Roles e) Organisational units f) Places g) Data Structures

2 Explain about friend functions and friend classes in detail
Answer:
Friend Functions
Friend functions can be declared anywhere within a class declaration, but it is common practice to list friends at the beginning of the class. The public and protected keywords do not apply to friend functions, as the class has no control over the scope of friends.
If we want to declare an external function as friend of a class, thus allowing this function to have access to the private and protected members of this class, we do it by declaring a prototype of this external function

3 Differentiate between Constructors and Destructors
Answer: Constructor:
·                     Constructor is Used to Initialize the Object.
·                     Constructor can takes arguments.
·                     Constructor overloading can be possible means more than one constructors can be defined

4 Discuss operator overloading. What are the advantage and disadvantage of operator overloading in brief.
Answer:
 Operator overloading is the ability to tell the compiler how to perform a certain operation when its corresponding operator is used on one or more variables. In object-oriented programming, operator overloading less commonly known as operator ad-hoc polymorphism is a specific case of polymorphism, where different operators have different implementations depending on their arguments. Operator overloading is generally defined by the language, the programmer, or both.

5 Explain the concept of virtual function and polymorphism in OOPS with example.
Answer:
Virtual Functions
Virtual means existing in effect but not in reality. Virtual functions are primarily used in inheritance. Let us suppose you have a class base as shown in the following program and two classes derv1 and derv2 are publicly derived from class base. You would like to create a pointer that points to any of the derived class objects. If you create a pointer of derv1, then it can point to derv1 object only. Compiler will complain if

6 Describe the two basic exception handling models.
Answer:
If you encounter an exceptional situation in your code – that is, one where you don’t have enough information in the current context to decide what to do – you can send information about the error into a larger context by creating an object containing that information and “throwing” it out of your current context. This is called throwing an exception. Here’s what it looks like:
throw myerror(“something bad happened”);
myerror is an ordinary class, which takes a char* as its argument. You




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WINTER 2013 ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM MCA (REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER SECOND
SUBJECT CODE & NAME MCA2020- ADVANCED DATA STRUCTURE


Q. No.1 Define data structure? Explain different types of data structures
[3+7] 10
Answer: A data structure is a particular way of storing and organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently.
Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. For example, B-trees are particularly well-suited for implementation of databases, while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers.
Data structures provide a means to manage large amounts of data efficiently, such as large databases and internet indexing services. Usually, efficient data structures are a key to designing efficient algorithms. Some formal design methods and programming languages emphasize data structures, rather than algorithms, as the key organizing factor in software design. Storing and retrieving can be carried out on data stored in both main memory and in secondary memory.

2 Discuss in detail any two Mathematical notations and functions which appear on algorithmic analysis.
[2*5] 10
Answer:
The following are the some of the mathematical functions.
 Floor and ceiling functions·
 Remainder function·
 Integer and absolute value functions·

3 Describe the following types of linked list
a. Doubly linked list
Answer:
Doubly linked list
In some situation we need to traverse both forward and backward of a linked list. The linked list with this property needs two link field one to point the next node is called next link field and another to point the previous node is called previous link field. The linked list containing this type of nodes is called doubly linked list or two- way list. Here first nodes previous link field and the last nodes next link field are marked as null. The figure 3.15 shows the node structure.

4 Differentiate between Breadth-first and depth-first search algorithm.
[5+5] 10
Answer: Graph algorithms are generally used in computer science to find and examine a path between the nodes using algorithm like depth-first search and breadth-first search. These algorithms are used generally for the examination of the graph so that further manipulation of data structure becomes easier and more appropriate

Breadth first search
This algorithm uses a queue data structure to perform the search. The effect of this is to process all nodes adjacent to the start node before we process the nodes adjacent to those nodes.
If all of the edges in a graph are unweighted (or the same weight) then the first time a node is visited is the

5 Explain the meaning of dynamic storage management. Also explain the concept of storage release.
[5+5] 10
Answer: Memory holds basically programs and their data. All the program need to manipulate the data in order to complete the task. These data should be stored in the memory for manipulation, so these data can be managed in two different ways. Like static storage management and dynamic storage management.
Primitive and static natures of data structures like integer, real, or character variable has the characters

6 Write short note on:
a) Sequential search
Answer:
Sequential searching
The simplest type of searching process is the sequential search or linear search. In the sequential search, each element of the array is compared to the key, in the order it appears in the array, until the first element matching the key is found. If you are looking for an element that is near the front of the array, the sequential search will find it quickly. The more data that must be searched, the longer it will take to find the data that matches the key using this process.
For a list with n items, the best case is when the value is equal to the first element of the list, in which case only one comparison is needed. The worst case is when the value is not in the list (or occurs only once at the end of the list), in which case n comparisons are needed. The input to a search algorithm is an array of objects A, the number of objects n, and the key value being sought x.





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WINTER 2013 ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM MCA (REVISED FALL 2012)
SEMESTER SECOND
MCA2010 – OPERATING SYSTEM


Q.No 1 Differentiate between Simple Batch Operating Systems and Timesharing
Operating Systems. 5+5= 10
Answer:

Simple Batch Operating Systems
In the earliest days digital computers usually run from a console. I/O devices consisted of card readers, tape drives and line printers. Direct user interaction with the system did not exist. Users made a job consisting of programs, data and control information. The job was submitted

2 What is the best methodology available to create a modular kernel? List the seven types of loadable kernel modules in Solaris.
3+7 10
Answer: Perhaps the best current methodology for operating-system design involves using object-oriented programming techniques to create a modular kernel. Here, the kernel has a set of core components and dynamically links in additional services either during boot time or during run time. Such a strategy uses dynamically loadable modules and is common in modern implementations of UNIX, such as Solaris, Linux and MacOS. For example, the Solaris operating system structure is organized around a core kernel with seven types of loadable kernel modules:

3 Explain the following scheduling algorithm.
a) First come First served
Answer:
This is one of the brute force algorithms. A process that requests for the CPU first is allocated the CPU first. Hence, the name first come first serve. The FCFS algorithm is implemented by using a first-in-first-out (FIFO) queue structure for the ready queue. This queue has a head and a tail. When a process joins the ready queue its PCB is linked to the tail of the FIFO queue. When the CPU is idle, the process at the head of the FIFO queue is allocated the CPU and deleted from the queue.

4. Define deadlock. Discuss any four conditions that lead to deadlock.
2+8 10
Answer:
 Several processes compete for a finite set of resources in a multi-programmed environment. A process requests for resources that may not be readily available at the time of the request. In such a case the process goes into a wait state. It may so happen that this process may never change state because the requested resources are held by other processes which themselves are waiting for additional resources and hence in a wait state. This situation is called a deadlock.

5 Write short notes on:
a) Segmentation
Answer: Memory management using paging provides two entirely different views of memory – User / logical / virtual view and the actual / physical view. Both are not the same. In fact, the user’s view is mapped on to the physical view. How do users visualize memory? Users prefer to view memory as a collection of variable sized segments.
Segmentation is a memory management scheme that supports user’s view of main memory described above. The logical address is then a collection of segments, each having a name and a

6 What is computer virus? List the types of virus and its various infection methods
2+2+6 10
Answer: A computer virus is written with an intention of infecting other programs. It is a part of a program that piggybacks on to a valid program. It differs from the worm in the following ways:
 Worm is a complete program by itself and can execute independently whereas virus does not operate independently.·
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BCA 2nd Sem WINTER 2013 Solved Assignments



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WINTER 2013 ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM - BCA REVISED 2012
SEMESTER II
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BCA2030- OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING – C++


Q. No. 1 Differentiate between Objects and Classes
[5+5] 10
Answer: Objects can be a menu or button in an graphic user interface program or it may be an employee in an payroll application. Objects can also represent a data structure such as a stack or a linked list. It may be a server or a client in a networking environment.
Objects with the same data structure and behavior are grouped together as class. In other words, Objects are “instances” of a class. Classes are templates that provide definition to the objects of similar type. Objects are like variables created whenever necessary in the program. For example, Employee may be a class and Pawan, Sujay and Ganesh are objects of the class employees. Just as you can create as many

2 Explain about friend functions and friend classes in detail
[5+5]
10
Answer: Friend functions can be declared anywhere within a class declaration, but it is common practice to list friends at the beginning of the class. The public and protected keywords do not apply to friend functions, as the class has no control over the scope of friends.
If we want to declare an external function as friend of a class, thus allowing this function to have access to the private and protected members of this class, we do it by declaring a prototype of this external function


3 Differentiate between Constructors and Destructors
[5+5]
10
Answer:
Constructors
Constructors are member functions of a class which have same name as the class name. Constructors are called automatically whenever an object of the class is created. This feature makes it very useful to initialize the class data members whenever a new object is created. It also can perform any other function that needs to be performed for all the objects of the class without explicitly specifying it.
A constructor only knows how to build an object of its own class.


4 Discuss operator overloading. What are the advantage and disadvantage of operator overloading in brief.
[5+5]
10
Answer:
Operator overloading is an interesting feature of C++ that allows programmers to specify how various arithmetic, relational and many other operators work with user defined data types or classes. It provides a flexible way to work with classes and can make program code look obvious. To perform addition of two distance objects we used a call d3.add(d1,d2). Instead of such statements it would be more clear if we could use statements like d3=d1+d2. This is possible only if we inform compiler about how + operator works with distance class. This is exactly what operator overloading feature in C++ does. It helps to use

5 Explain the concept of virtual function and polymorphism in OOPS with example.
[5+5]
10
Answer:
Virtual means existing in effect but not in reality. Virtual functions are primarily used in inheritance. Let us suppose you have a class base as shown in the following program and two classes derv1 and derv2 are publicly derived from class base. You would like to create a pointer that points to any of the derived class objects. If you create a pointer of derv1, then it can point to derv1 object only. Compiler will complain if you assign any other object is assigned to the pointer. The solution is to create a pointer to Base class.

6 Describe the two basic exception handling models.
[5+5]
10
Answer:
If you encounter an exceptional situation in your code – that is, one where you don’t have enough information in the current context to decide what to do – you can send information about the error into a larger context by creating an object containing that information and “throwing” it out of your current context. This is called throwing an exception. Here’s what it looks like: throw myerror(“something bad happened”); myerror is an ordinary class, which takes a char* as its argument. You can use any type when you throw (including built-in types), but often you’ll use special types created just for throwing







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WINTER 2013 ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM BCA
SEMESTER SECOND
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BCA2040- COMMUNICATION SKILLS



Q. No. 1 What is nonverbal communication? Give five examples for non-verbal communication
5+5= 10
Answer:
Non-verbal communication
Non-verbal communication means the messages that do not contain words.
In this type of communication, words are not used in the process of sending and receiving messages. You may wonder, “How is this possible?” It is a proven fact that most of our communication through words

2 What are the prosodic features of speech?
10
Answer:
  Prosodic features (sometimes known as suprasegmental phonology) are those aspects of speech which go beyond phonemes and deal with the auditory qualities of sound. In spoken communication, we use and interpret these features without really thinking about them. There are various conventional ways of representing them in writing, although the nuances are often hard to convey on paper.

3 Define hearing and Listening. How is ‘hearing’ different from ‘listening’
4+6
10
Answer:
Listening is a highly complex, interactive process, “by which spoken language is converted to meaning in the mind” (Lundsteen, 1979). As this definition suggests, listening is more than just hearing, although children and adults often use the two terms, hearing and listening, synonymously.
Hearing is only one important component of listening.
In order to become a good learner, you need to become a good listener.


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WINTER 2013, ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM BCA REVISED 2012
SEMESTER II
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BCA 2050 & COMPUTER ORGANISATION



Q.No 1 What is signed number? Briefly explain the best-known methods of extending the binary numeral system to represent signed numbers.
[4+6] 10
Answer: In computing, signed number representations are required to encode negative numbers in binary number systems. In mathematics, '+' sign is used for a positive number and ‘−‘sign for negative numbers in any base. However, in computer hardware, numbers are represented in bit vectors only without extra symbols. The best-known methods of extending the binary numeral system to represent signed numbers are:
i) Sign-and-magnitude method
ii) Ones' complement method

2 Explain the Programmer’s Model of 8086.
Answer: programmer’s model of 8086 is the most important concept to study in the 8086 model. Figure 4.4 shows the register organisation of 8086. This is termed as the Programmer’s model of 8086.
The registers shown in the programmer’s model are the one accessible to the programmer. Register set is the most visible component of the CPU. The 80x86

3 Explain the four micro operations involved in the instruction cycle. 10
Answer:
Each phase of instruction cycle can be decomposed into a sequence of elementary operations called micro operations. Thus there is one sequence of micro operation in every phase for every op code. The flow chart of all the sequence of micro operations is tied up together and is as shown in figure 5.3. Here we assume a new 2 bit register called instruction cycle code (ICC). The ICC values give the state of the CPU and

4 What is Cache Memory? Explain the principle of cache memory with relevant diagrams.
[2+8] 10
Answer: For all instruction cycles, the CPU accesses the memory at least once to fetch the instruction and sometimes again accesses memory to fetch the operands. The rate at which the CPU can execute instructions is limited by the memory cycle time. This limitation is due to the mismatch between the memory cycle time and processor cycle time. Ideally, the main memory should be built with the same technology as that of CPU registers, giving memory cycle times comparable to processor cycle times but this is a too expensive strategy. The solution is to exploit the principle of locality by providing a small, fast

5 What is the difference between Synchronous and Asynchronous Data Transfer?
[5+5] 10
Answer: Asynchronous and synchronous communication represents methods through which signals are transferred in computing technology. Such signals permit computers to move data between components inside the computer or between an external network and the computer. Majority of the operations and actions which occur in computers are carefully controlled and happen at particular times and intervals. The data transfer on the system bus might be synchronous or asynchronous.


6 What is Multiprocessing? State two advantages and disadvantages of multiprocessing. How is it different form multitasking?
[2+4+4] 10
Answer: Multiprocessing is concerned with the capability of a computer system to provide support to more than one processor or the capability to accomplish more than one program simultaneously. The term multiprocessing is also used to describe interconnected computers’ configurations or computers with two or more independent CPUs that have the ability to simultaneously execute several programs. In such a system, instructions from different and independent programs are processed at the same time by different CPUs or the CPUs may execute different instructions from the same program.






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WINTER 2013, ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM - BCA REVISED 2012
SEMESTER II
SUBJECT CODE & NAME BCA 2020 & DATA STRUCTURE AND ALGORITHMS

Q.No 1 What is a data structure? Briefly explain the types of data structures.
[4 + 6]= 10
Answer: Data structure represents the logical relationship of the particular data sets.
Data structures can be divided in to two types
· Linear data structure
· Non Linear data structure


Q2 Explain the algorithm for evaluation of a postfix expression. Also give one example.
[6+4] 10
Answer:
Evaluation of a postfix expression
Suppose we have an arithmetic expression written in postfix notation. By using STACK we are going to evaluate the expression. The following algorithm, which uses a stack to hold operands, evaluates the expression.


Q3 Explain any five types of Graph. 10
Answer:
Depending upon the vertices and edges and the weight associated to it, graphs can be classified as:

1) Undirected graph: In Undirected Graph, the directions of edges are not assigned. Edges in the Undirected graph only connect to each other. In an undirected graph, edge (v1,v2) is equivalent to edge (v2,v1) since they are unassigned.

Q4 Explain the steps involved in Prim's Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm. Illustrate it with one example
[5+5] 10
Answer:
In Prim's algorithm for the minimum spanning tree problem, the strategy is to   begin with a single node in a graph. We start with ({v1},{ }), and grow further until it includes all vertices in the given graph. Initially the tree contains just an arbitrary starting node v1. At each stage a vertex not yet in the tree but closest (lower in weight) to some vertex that is in the tree is found. This closest vertex is added to the tree.

Q5 Elaborate the steps involved in the analysis of first prefix- averages with its algorithm. 10
ANSWER:
Analysis of First-Averages
The different steps involved in the analysis of first averages is discussed below

Step 1: Initialization step for setting up of the array A [1. .n] takes constant time, say, C1, in view of the fact that for the purpose, only address of (or of A[1] is to be passed. Also after all the values of B [1...n]


Q6 Briefly explain Greedy Method Strategy. 10
ANSWER:
The greedy method suggests that one can device an algorithm that works in stages, considering one input at a time. At each stage, a decision is made regarding whether a particular input is in an optimal solution. This is done by considering the inputs in an order determined by some selection procedure.
If the inclusion of the next input into the partially constructed optimal solution will result in an infeasible solution, then this input is not added to the partial solution. Otherwise, it is added. The 


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WINTER 2013 ASSIGNMENT
PROGRAM BCA REVISED 2012
SEMESTER II
SUBJECT CODE & NAME- BCA2010 – OPERATING SYSTEM
Q. No 1 Differentiate between Simple Batch Operating Systems and Time-sharing Operating Systems.5+5=10 marks
Answer:
Simple Batch Operating Systems
In the earliest days digital computers usually run from a console. I/O devices consisted of card readers, tape drives and line printers. Direct user interaction with the system did not exist. Users made a job consisting of programs, data and control information. The job was submitted to an operator who would execute the job on the computer system. The output appeared after minutes, hours or sometimes days. The user collected the output from the operator, which also included a memory dump. The operating system was very simple and its major task was to transfer control from one job to another.


Q2 What is the best methodology available to create a modular kernel? List the seven types of loadable kernel modules in Solaris. 3+7=10
Answer:
Modules
Perhaps the best current methodology for operating-system design involves using object-oriented programming techniques to create a modular kernel. Here, the kernel has a set of core components and dynamically links in additional services either during boot time or during run time. Such a strategy uses dynamically loadable modules and is common in modern implementations of UNIX, such as Solaris, Linux and MacOS. For example, the Solaris operating system structure is organized around a core kernel with seven types of loadable kernel modules:

Q3. Explain the following scheduling algorithm.
a) First come First served
b) Shortest Job First
5+5=10 marks.
Answer: Scheduling algorithms differ in the manner in which the CPU selects a process in the ready queue for execution. In this section, we shall describe several of these algorithms.
a)     First-Come-First-Served

Q4. Define deadlock. Discuss any four conditions that leads to deadlock.
2+8=10 marks
Answer:
Definition:
 Several processes compete for a finite set of resources in a multi-programmed environment. A process requests for resources that may not be readily available at the time of the request. In such a case the process goes into a wait state. It may so happen that this process may never change state because the requested resources are held by other processes which themselves are waiting for additional resources and hence in a wait state. This situation is called a deadlock.



Q5. Write short notes on:
a) Segmentation
Answer: Segmentation is a memory management scheme that supports user’s view of main memory described above. The logical address is then a collection of segments, each having a name and a length. Since it is easy to work with numbers, segments are numbered. Thus a logical address is represented as <segment number, offset>. User programs when compiled reflect segments present in the input. Loader while loading segments into memory assign them segment numbers.

Segmentation hardware
Even though segments in user view are same as segments in physical view, the two-dimensional visualization in user view has to be mapped on to a one-dimensional sequence of physical memory

Q6 What is computer virus? List the types of virus and its various infection methods
2+2+6=10
Answer:

Computer Virus
A computer virus is written with an intention of infecting other programs. It is a part of a program that piggybacks on to a valid program. It differs from the worm in the following ways:

 Worm is a complete program by itself and can execute independently whereas virus does not operate independently.·
 Worm consumes only system resources but virus causes direct harm to the system by corrupting code as well as data.·
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