Monday, 29 July 2013

ML0010 - Warehousing and Supply Chain Management




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Summer 2013

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3

ML0010 - Warehousing and Supply Chain Management

Q1. What do you mean by warehousing and What are the attributes of Ideal Warehousing?
(Meaning - 2 marks, Explaining Attributes - 8 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Warehousing :

Warehousing is a term used to denote the storage of a product, service, or data at a designated repository or storage area for the purpose of safety, security, or transit. At a physical level, a warehouse could be a large building or enclosed space that can be used to store a product before moving it on further to the next point. Warehousing is also possible in the virtual world of computers, where large virtual repositories are used to store data.

Q2. Examine the fundamental dimensions of customer service.
 (Detail explanation of 3 fundamental dimensions - 8 marks, Diagram – 2 Marks) 10 Marks

Answer :  Fundamental dimensions of customer service:

1. The Human Dimension:

Every customer has human needs--for respect, individual attention, and other care beyond the practical focus of the interaction. To create positive defining moments, service stars must recognize and respond to the customer's human needs. Particularly with an upset customer, skills in the human dimension can spell the difference between keeping and losing that customer.

Q3. Discuss the major drivers of supply chain performance briefly.
 (Introduction & Diagram - 2 marks, Explaining drivers - 8 marks) 10 Marks

Answer :  Major drivers of supply chain management :

1. Facilities :

Facilities are the actual physical locations in the supply chain network where product is stored, assembled,
or fabricated. The two major types of facilities are production sites and storage sites. Decisions regarding the role,
location, capacity, and flexibility of facilities have a significant impact on the supply chain's performance. For
instance, an auto parts distributor striving for responsiveness could have many warehousing facilities located close
to customers even though this practice reduces efficiency.

Q4. Enumerate the three basic steps involved in the achievement of strategic fit.
(Detail explanation of 3 basic steps - 8 marks, Diagram - 2 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Three basic steps involved in the achievement of strategic fit:

Strategic fit between competitive strategy and supply chain strategy refers to the consistency between the customer needs that the competitive strategy aims to satisfy and the supply chain capabilities that the supply chain strategy aims to build.

Q5. What are the basics of strategic supply chain management and also enlist the imperatives for the supply chain strategy?
(Explanation of strategic supply chain management – 2 marks, Diagram - 2 marks, Listing the imperatives - 6 marks) 10 Marks

Answer :  Strategic Supply chain management :

Supply chain management operates at three levels; strategic, tactical and operational. At the strategic level, company management makes high level strategic supply chain decisions that are relevant to whole organization. The decisions that are made with regards to the supply chain should reflect the overall corporate strategy that the organization is following. The strategic supply chain processes that management has to decide upon will cover the breadth of the supply chain. These include product development, customers, manufacturing, vendors and logistics.

Q6. Explain the various factors that are taken into view while assessing and scoring the suppliers.
(Detail explanation of factors - 10 marks) 10 Marks

Answer :  Factors in assessing and scoring the suppliers :

1. Competency:

First, look at how competent this supplier is. Make a thorough assessment of the supplier's capabilities measured against your needs, but then also look at what other customers think. How happy are they with the supplier?

2. Capacity:

The supplier needs to have enough capacity to handle your firm's requirements. So, how quickly will it be able to respond to these, and to other market and supply fluctuations? Look at all of the supplier's resources, too.


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ML0011 - Buying and Merchandising




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Summer 2013

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3

ML0011 - Buying and Merchandising

Q1. Explain the various principles of an ideal merchandising giving suitable examples for each?
(Meaning of Ideal Merchandising – 2, Detail explanation of 14 principles - 8 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Ideal Merchandising :

Merchandising is a term used in marketing to denote all those sales- promotion activities that aim to generate the customer’s interest in the product or service other than conventional press and television advertising, direct mail or the use of PR. The purpose of merchandising is to bring product and customer into the closest possible proximity in order that the attributes of the merchandise may become fully apparent and, in effect, sell themselves.

Q2. Enumerate the category management strategies that are used by retailers to ensure a smooth category management process.
(Meaning of category management – 2 marks, Detail explanation of 7 steps – 8 marks) 10 Marks

Answer :  Category management :

Category management is a retailing and supply management concept in which the range of products purchased by a business organization or sold by a retailer is broken down into discrete groups of similar or related products; these groups are known as product categories (examples of grocery categories might be: tinned fish, washing detergent, toothpastes).

Q3. Discuss the concept of open-to-buy system. How do you calculate open- to-buy for the past and current period?
(Detail explanation on the concept of OTB system - 3 marks, Calculation of OTB for past period – 2 marks, Calculation of OTB for current period - 5 marks) 10 Marks

Answer :  Open to buy system :

An open-to-buy is a tool that in the hands of a fully committed small retailer can profoundly improve financial performance. It allows a retailer to manage inventory, plan purchases, and budget effectively. The clearest and simplest definition is that it is a financial budget for retail merchandise. Let's look at this more closely.

Q4. Enumerate some merits and demerits of Formal Buying Organization, Informal Buying Organization, Centralized Buying & Decentralized Buying along with diagrammatic representation of functions and attributes of the buying department.
(Diagrammatic representation of functions and Attributes of the buying department – 2 marks, Merits and Demerits of formal buying – 2 marks, Merits and Demerits of informal buying – 2 marks, Merits and Demerits of Centralized buying – 2 marks, Merits and Demerits of Decentralized buying – 2 marks)  10 Marks

Answer : Diagrammatic representation of functions and Attributes of the buying department:

Purchasing is a key activity in the supply chain. It can significantly influence the overall success of an emergency response depending on how it is managed. In humanitarian supply chains, procurement represents a very large proportion of the total spend and should be managed effectively to achieve optimum value. Procurement works like a pivot in the internal supply chain process turning around requests into actual products/commodities or services to fulfill the needs

Q5. Enumerate the first 5 steps in Merchandise Buying and Handling Process.
 (Explanation of first 5 steps – 8 marks, Diagram - 2 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : First 5 steps in Merchandise Buying and Handling process :

Once a retailer develops a strategy for handling merchandise, a reorder procedure must be developed. This procedure depends on various factors like the time taken by the retailer to process the order, the time taken by the vendor to fulfill the order, the inventory turnover rate, the financial expenditure and the cost of holding inventory versus the cost of ordering merchandise. The retailer should re-evaluate the complete merchandising process periodically.


Q6. ‘Selecting an appropriate vendor is the key step in the success of an enterprise’.
(Detail explanation of five steps - 9 marks, Diagram – 1 mark) 10 Marks

Answer: Steps in selection of an appropriate vendor :

1. Analyze the Business Requirements:

Before you begin to gather data or perform interviews, assemble a team of people who have a vested interest in this particular vendor selection process. The first task that the vendor selection team needs accomplish is to define, in writing, the product, material or service that you are searching for a vendor. Next define the technical and business requirements



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ML0012 - Store Operations




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Summer 2013

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3

ML0012 - Store Operations

Q1. Explain Pre-Store opening activities and State at least 10 pre-store opening activities that should be ideally carried out in a retail store?
(Meaning of Pre-Store opening activity – 2 marks, 10 activities - 8 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Pre-store opening activity :

There are a number of things to learn about before opening a retail store. Launching such a venture involves steps like market research, business plan development and financial planning. Understanding what it takes to start and run a business before you move forward will increase your chances at success. For best results, read through economic indicators of the local retail market for the past several years, and learn about projections for the retail market in the future.

Q2. What are the functions of a store manager?
(Brief explanation of at least 10 functions of a retail store manager – 10 marks) 10 Marks

Answer :  Functions of store manager :

1. Promotion:

In smaller retail operations that are not part of larger chains, the store manager is often responsible for developing and implementing promotional programs. He may create advertising campaigns, place ads in local newspapers, purchase advertising time on local radio or television stations, or arrange events like product demonstrations by manufacturers or distributors.


Q3. What does an optimum store layout ensure?
(Brief explanation of at least 10 factors which explains optimum store layout – 10 marks) 10 Marks

Answer :  Factors in optimum store layout :

1. Don’t place merchandise in the “decompression zone.”

When consumers enter a store, they tend to turn to the right. Position merchandise with this in mind. A psychological shift also occurs when inside a store, so patrons typically don’t notice merchandizing displays within 15 feet of the entrance.


Q4. Write a note on any two types of classification on the basis of the nature of merchandise.
(Classification on basis of Nature of Merchandise – 7 marks, Classification on the basis of usability and condition of merchandise – 3 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Classification on basis of Nature of Merchandise:

Merchandise Inventory is the largest asset for most merchandising business. Keeping the right amount of inventory in stock can be challenging. If you have too much inventory, you are spending your cash for items that are not selling. If you do not keep enough inventory in stock and you run out of items, you may lose customers to the competition. It is important for a merchandising business to maintain an inventory system that will help keep the right amount of inventory on hand.

Q5. Define standardization and explain the levels of standardization .
(Explanation of standardization – 2 marks, Explaining the levels of standardization - 8 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Standardization :

Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards. The goals of right standardization can be to help with independence of single suppliers (commoditization), compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions.

Q6. How does a store control the quality of its merchandise?
(Detail explanation of five steps in quality control procedure - 10 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Steps in quality control procedure :

 Retail business differ from other business types in that most specialize in selling already-produced goods rather than manufacturing products from raw materials. The retail sector boasts immense variety, including e-commerce, mail order, vending machines, home party sales and service providers, according to Entrepreneur.com. Small business retailers rely on quality goods and services to compete with other small businesses and larger competitors.


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ML0013 - Retail IT Management




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Summer 2013

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 3

ML0013 - Retail IT Management

Q1. Explain the various factors affecting the use of IT applications in the retail industry?
(Detailed explanation on factors – 10 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Various factors affecting the use of IT applications in the retail industry:

While every retailer may want harness the power of technology and use it to its optimum advantages many factors affect its use. The chief among them are:

1. The scale and scope of operations:

As stated earlier, the size or the scale of operations is the key factor influencing the decision on the type of systems required. In case of a small retailer; the significance is much lower as compared to that for a large chain retailer, who operates at a national or an international level.


Q2. What is the impact of e-retailing in the travel and tourism sector?
(Detail explanation of e-retailing in travel and tourism sector with examples – 10 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Impact of e-retailing in the travel and tourism sector :

E-retailing  in travel and tourism is growing day by day which provide opportunity to this industry to groom and grow. Due to change in Information technology, e retailing is emerged in this industry and companies are now heading toward e-business through website, internet and different online software. Moving from traditional business way to e-commerce way is quite challenging and various factors are standing as a barrier for companies to adapt e-commerce.

Q3. What is RFID technology and how does it work?
(Detail explanation on working of RFID technology – 6 marks, concept of RFID – 2 marks, and diagram – 2 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Working of RFID technology :

A Radio-Frequency Identification system has three parts:

  • A scanning antenna
  • A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data
  • A transponder - the RFID tag - that has been programmed with information.

Q4. Describe the various features of retail software.
(Detail explanation on functions of retail software - 10 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Features of retail software :

Retail software is computer software sold to end consumers, usually under restricted licenses. Until the 2000s with emergence of the Internet, retail software represented the vast majority of all end consumer software used and was referred to as shrink ware because software almost always ships in a shrink wrapped box. An important historical event that led to the expansion of the market for retail software was the Open Letter to Hobbyists by Bill Gates in 1976.

Q5. Briefly describe the steps involved in designing a database.
(Explanation of 5 steps involved in designing a database - 10 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Steps involved in designing a database :

Step 1-Think/Talk:

The first step in designing a database is to consider the project you are working on and the features that your future users might want to have access to. I have found that during this step, it is extremely helpful to talk to both the management that is supervising the project and the end users who will work with the system on a daily basis to determine what they expect from the end-result and what issues they are trying to resolve.

Q6. Explain the various types of networks.
(Detail explanation of five types of networks - 10 marks) 10 Marks

Answer : Various types of networks :

1. LAN - Local Area Network:

A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. In TCP/IP networking, a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet. In addition to operating in a limited space, LANs are also typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization. They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet and Token Ring.





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QM0015 - ISOQS 9000 Elements




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Summer 2013

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 4

QM0015 - ISOQS 9000 Elements

Q1. Define Quality Management System. Explain the scope of Quality management system.
(Meaning – 3 marks, Scope – 7 marks) 10 marks

Answer : Quality Management System :

A quality management system (QMS) can be expressed as the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. Early systems emphasized predictable outcomes of an industrial product production line, using simple statistics and random sampling. By the 20th century, labour inputs were typically the most costly inputs in most industrialized societies, so focus shifted to team cooperation and dynamics, especially the early signaling of problems via a continuous improvement cycle.

Q2. Explain Design review and Design verification.
(Explanation of each – 5 marks) 10 marks

Answer : Deign review :

A design review is a set of activities whose purpose is to evaluate how well a potential product (a design) meets all
quality requirements. During the course of this review, problems must be identified and solutions must be
developed. Moreover Design review is a set of activities whose purpose is to evaluate the suitability, adequacy, effectiveness, and sometimes the efficiency of a set of characteristics or specifications.

Q3. Explain Product identification and traceability.
 (Explanation – 10 marks) 10 marks

Answer : Product identification and traceability:

ISO 9001 section 7.5.3 addresses identification and traceability of product.  Identification is normally performed by assigning a part number.  Purchased components normally contain a part number from the supplier.  When this is not the case, one should be assigned to the parts or to them upon receipt. During production, a product that goes through multiple process steps must be identified as to which process steps it has gone through.  This is often accomplished by attaching a traveler document.  A traveler will indicate which process steps have been accomplished.

Q4. Explain in-process inspection and testing. Discuss Measurement system analysis (MSA) in QS 9000. (Explanation – 5 marks, MSA – 5 marks) 10 marks

Answer :
 Inspection is generally divided into three categories:
(1)Receiving inspection,
(2) In-process inspection, and
(3) Final inspection.


Q5. a. Describe the inventory control as per ISO standards.
(Description – 5 marks)

Answer : Inventory control as per ISO standards:

Inventory Control is the supervision of supply, storage and accessibility of items in order to ensure an adequate supply without excessive oversupply. It can also be referred as internal control - an accounting procedure or system designed to promote efficiency or assure the implementation of a policy or safeguard assets or avoid fraud and error etc.

Q6. What are the advantages of employee training? What are the different activities an organisation should undertake while training the employees?
 (Advantages – 5 marks, Activities – 5 marks) 10 marks

Answer :  Advantages of employee training :

1. Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees. This has an added benefit of making your company more attractive to prospective employees.

2. More motivated workers, which in turn tends to increase productivity and spur profits.



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QM0016 - Managing Quality in the Organisation




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Summer 2013

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 4

QM0016 - Managing Quality in the Organisation

Q1. a. Discuss managing quality transformation in organisation.
 (Explanation – 5 marks)

Answer : Managing quality transformation in organisation :

A quality transformation requires adopting a strategic mindset towards quality. Quality organizations are not traditionally strong drivers of corporate strategy; in many cases, there may be no clear quality strategy that is communicated throughout the company. Just as Starbucks emphasized the importance of quality to the firm's new direction, we believe best-in-class organizations not only must have an explicit quality strategy, but also must seamlessly integrate quality into their enterprise strategy.

Q2. Explain the different steps of quality statements. Describe the factors in planning for quality          
(Steps – 5 marks, Factors – 5 marks)

Answer :  Different steps of quality statement :

Quality is not an option, but a necessity to survive and thrive in an environment of global competition. It aims to provide total customer satisfaction that will lead to customer loyalty.
When tendering for a contract, you will have to show the buyer that you can be relied upon to deliver the project to the required standard, on time. But how? This is where a quality statement comes in — a document that explains the skills, experience and expertise that you can bring to the job. Here's how to write one

Q3. Explain the steps involved to determine customer satisfaction. Explain any two tools used to determine customer needs.
 (Steps – 5 marks, Two tools – 5 marks)

Answer :  Steps involved to determine customer satisfaction:

Step 1: Identify your target customers:

Begin by identifying your target customers. Who are they? What do they need from your agency? How, and at what times or places do they interact with your agency—what are the "points of service delivery"?

Step 2: Determine what your customers want:

Determine what target customers want (not just what they need right now) by considering these techniques:
  • online customer satisfaction surveys

Q4. Explain the importance  of  employee  involvement  for  maximizing quality.
 (Explanation – 10 marks)

Answer : Importance  of  employee  involvement  for  maximizing quality:

The shrinking global market has led to stiff competition in the business and industrial arena. The entry of a number of new companies, both local and global into various markets has given the customer a wide array of product choices. Many of these new companies are able to produce the same or similar products at almost the same or lower costs. Thus customers today have a wide range of products to choose from.

Q5. Explain the steps involved in an effective training needs analysis.
 (Steps – 10 marks)

Answer :  Steps involved in an effective training needs analysis:

Step 1. Analyze the Job:

Discuss with the staff member the existing resources that describe the job such as the current position description, the Position Classification Descriptors, the outcome of the most recent Performance Review & Development discussion, position description templates and also position descriptions of recently advertised positions.  All these resources will provide information about key responsibilities of the position and indicators of the skills, knowledge and abilities required to competently perform the job.

Q6. Define   Business   ethics.   Differentiate   between   corporate   cause promotions and corporate social initiatives.
 (Meaning – 4 marks, Differences - 6 marks)

Answer :  Business Ethics :

Business ethics (also corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.
Business ethics has both normative and descriptive dimensions.


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QM0017 - Quality Management System




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Summer 2013

Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 4

QM0017 - Quality Management System

Q1. Explain the various principles of Quality Management Systems.
(Meaning – 3 marks, Principles -7 marks) 10 marks

Answer :  Quality management system :

Quality Management System, in the simplest of terms, is defined as “The process of Management of the Systems of an organization, with regard to its Quality related activities, for „meeting and enhancing customer satisfaction‟ and also taking care of  all other interested parties such as legislative and regulatory bodies, shareholders, suppliers,
employees, etc.”

Q2. Explain scope and goals of ISO/TS 16949.
 (Scope – 5 marks, Goals – 5 marks) 10 marks

Answer :  Scope of ISO/TS 16949 :

The ISO/TS16949 is an ISO technical specification aiming to the development of a quality management system that provides for continual improvement, emphasizing defect prevention and the reduction of variation and waste in the supply chain. It is based on the ISO 9001 and the first edition was published in March 2002 as ISO/TS 16949:2002. It was prepared by the International Automotive Task Force (IATF) and the "Technical Committee" of ISO. It harmonizes the country-specific regulations of Quality-Management-Systems.

Q3. Explain the procedures and benefits of SA 8000.
(Procedure – 5 marks, Benefits – 5 marks) 10 marks

Answer :  Procedures of SA 8000:

SA8000 is an auditable certification standard that encourages organizations to develop, maintain, and apply socially acceptable practices in the workplace. Its procedures regarding various areas are described below :

1. Child Labor:

 No use or support of child labor; policies and written procedures for remediation of children found to be working in situation;

Q4. Explain the maturity levels of People Capability Maturity Model (People CMM)
(Meaning - 2 marks, Maturity Levels - 8 marks) 10 marks

Answer :  People CMM :

The People Capability Maturity Model (short names: People CMM, PCMM,P-CMM) is a maturity framework that focuses on continuously improving the management and development of the human assets of an organization. It describes an evolutionary improvement path from ad hoc, inconsistently performed practices, to a mature, disciplined, and continuously improving development of the knowledge, skills, and motivation of the workforce that enhances strategic business performance. The People Capability Maturity Model (People CMMI) is a framework that helps organizations successfully address their critical people issues.

Q5. What is ISO 22000? Describe the key elements. What are the benefits of ISO 22000?
(Meaning – 2 marks, Elements – 5 marks, Benefits - 3 marks) 10 marks

Answer :  ISO 22000 :

ISO 22000 is a standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization dealing with food safety. It is a general derivative of ISO 9000. The consequences of unsafe food can be serious and ISO’s food safety management standards help organizations identify and control food safety hazards. As many of today's food products repeatedly cross national boundaries, International Standards are needed to ensure the safety of the global food supply chain. The ISO 22000 family contains a number of standards each focusing on different aspects of food safety management.

Q6. What is business excellence? Explain core themes of excellence.
(Meaning –4 marks, Core themes – 6 marks)

Answer : Business excellence:

Business excellence is the systematic use of quality management principles and tools in business management, with the goal of improving performance based on the principles of customer focus, stakeholder value, and process management. Key practices in business excellence applied across functional areas in an enterprise include continuous and breakthrough improvement, preventative management and management by facts. Some of the tools used are the balanced scorecard, Lean, the Six Sigma statistical tools, process management, the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence and project management.


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