Thursday, 20 March 2014

BT0066 - Database Management Systems


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ASSIGNMENT

WINTER
2013
PROGRAM
BSc IT
SEMESTER
FIRST
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BT0066, Database Management Systems
CREDIT
3
BK ID
B0950
MAX. MARKS
60



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Eachquestion is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q.1 what is DBMS? Why it is required?

Answer: A database management system is the software system that allows users to define, create and maintain a database and provides controlled access to the data.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is basically a collection of programs that enables users to store, modify, and extract information from a database as per the requirements. DBMS is an intermediate layer between programs and the data. Programs access the DBMS, which then accesses the data. There are different types of DBMS




Q.2Explain MySQL architecture with diagram.

Answer:MySQL's architecture consists of a web of interrelated function sets, which work together to fulfil the various needs of the database server. A number of authors3 have implied that these function sets are indeed components, or entirely encapsulated packages; however, there is little evidence in the source code that this is the case.

Indeed, the architecture includes separate function libraries, composed of functions that handle similar tasks, but there is not, in the traditional object-oriented programming sense, a full component-level separation of functionality. By this, we mean that



Q.3Differentiate between fixed and variable length records.

Answer:    In the Fixed Length record is set to a certain length and the location is simply calculated in the Variable Length Record the record size is irrelevant because all records are indexed sequentially in a header record.Variable length record is the record contain different format (length) but the first 4 bytes taking length of record. The fixed length record must be declaring length otherwise throw the error.so after fill the records md fields’fill up the filler clause.Fixed length means the length of all records in the file is
Same.so we code record length is x chrs



Q.4 Write an sql query to create the table named employee with the following attributes:

Employee number – not null
Employee name
Department id
Make employee number as primary key.

Answer: Employee Table (EMPLOYEE)
The employee table identifies all employees by an employee number and lists basic personnel information. The employee table is created with the following CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements:





Q.5  Explain First Normal form and Second Normal Form.

Answer: First normal form (1NF) is a property of a relation in a relational database. A relation is in first normal form if the domain of each attribute contains only atomic values, and the value of each attribute contains only a single value from that domain.Second normal form (2NF) is a normal form used in database normalization. 2NF was originally defined by E.F. Codd in 1971.




Q.6 what is object oriented database system? Explain.

Answer:An object-oriented database is a database that subscribes to a model with information represented by objects. Object-oriented databases are a niche offering in the relational database management system (RDBMS) field and are not as successful or well-known as mainstream database engines.

A system offering DBMS facilities in an object-oriented programming environment. Data is stored as objects and can be interpreted only using the methods specified by its class. The relationship between similar objects is preserved (inheritance) as are references between objects. Queries can be faster because joins are often not needed (as in a
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BT0065 - C Programming and Data Structures


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ASSIGNMENT

WINTER
2013
PROGRAM
BSc IT
SEMESTER
FIRST
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BT0065, C Programming and Data Structures
CREDIT
3
BK ID
B0950
MAX. MARKS
60



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.



Q.1Compute the values of a and b:
int a;
int b;
a=1;
b=a++;
a. What value does the variable b have after ALL of the code above executes?
b. What value does the variable a have after ALL of the code above executes?

Answer:-
(a)    The  value of variable b have after ALL of the code above executes:-
b=1

(b)   The  value of variable a have after ALL of the code above executes:-
a=2
2Compute the values of X and Y.

a. What value does the variable z have after ALL of the code above executes?
b. What value does the variable y have after ALL of the code above executes?

Answer:-
(a)                The value of variable b have after ALL of the code above executes:-



(b)               The  value of variable b have after ALL of the code above executes:-


Q.2Write a program and draw a flowchart to print 1 to 100 all natural numbers.

Answer:-
#include<stdio.h>
#include<


Q.3Explain while and do-while statement with an example.

Answer:-WHILE - WHILE loops are very simple. The basic structure is

while ( condition ) { Code to execute while the condition is true } The true represents a boolean expression which could be x == 1 or while ( x != 7 ) (x does not equal 7). It can be any combination of Boolean statements that are legal. Even, (while x ==5 || v == 7) which says execute the code while x equals five or while v equals 7. Notice that a while loop is like a stripped-down version of a for loop-- it has no initialization or


Q.4Distinguish library functions and user defined functions.

Answer:-library functions :- A library function has been written by someone else, and is reusuable by many programmers to solve the same problem over and over.  standard fuction is pre define fuction like getch(),clrscr(), in c++ and These functions are also called as 'library functions'. These functions are provided by system. These functions are stored in library files. e.g.

scanf()



Q.5 Convert the following infix expressions into postfix showing stack status at each step.
1. a+b*c-d/e*f                                                                                                                 
2. a+(b*c) –d

Answer: -In order to convert infix to postfix expression, we need to understand the precedence of operators first.

Precedence of Operators
There are five binary operators, called addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation. We are aware of some other binary operators


Q.6 what is spanning tree? Explain Prim’s algorithm for minimum spanning tree.

Answer: -spanning tree:- In the mathematical field of graph theory, a spanning tree T of a connected, undirected graph G is a tree that includes all of the vertices and some or all of the edges of G.






Prim’s algorithm for minimum spanning tree:-Prim's algorithm closely resembles Dijkstra's algorithm because they both rely on a similar approach of finding the "next closest" vertex. Prim's algorithm slowly grows a minimum spanning tree, starting from
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BT0064 - LOGIC DESIGN


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ASSIGNMENT

WINTER
2013
PROGRAM
BSc IT
SEMESTER
1
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BT0064-LOGIC DESIGN
CREDIT
4
BK ID
B0948
MAX. MARKS
60



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Eachquestion is followed by evaluation scheme.




Q.1Expand the following Boolean functions into their canonical form:
i. f(X,Y,Z) =XY+YZ+ X Z+ X Y
ii. f(X,Y, Z) =XY+ X Y + X YZ

Answer: Canonical Form: -The word "canonical" simply means "standard" and it is used throughout mathematics and science to denote some standard form for equations. In digital electronics, Boolean equations are considered to be in canonical form when each of the terms in the equation includes all of the possible inputs and those terms appear in the same order as in the truth table. The canonical form is important when simplifying a circuit.

For example, imagine the solution to a given problem generated the following truth table:
Canonical Example #1 Inputs     Output







Q.2 Explain the concepts of Gray code and Excess-3 Code with their respective properties.

Answer: Gray code:-

The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank Gray, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only one bit. The reflected binary code was originally designed to prevent spurious output from electromechanical switches. Today, Gray codes are widely used to facilitate error correction in digital communications such as digital terrestrial television and some cable TV systems.

The reflected binary code solves this problem by changing only one switch at a time, so there is never any ambiguity of position:-





Q.3 Explain the working of JK flip-flop in detail.

Answer: The J-K Flip-Flop IC is used to shift data from one point to another in a circuit in a timed fashion using a clock/strobe pulse to control the data flow. The J-K is also used as a binary counter. The number of bits in the counter byte is determined by the number of J-Ks that are linked (output-to-input fashion). As a teacher I found the J-K ideal for teaching the concepts of data shifting (control) and binary counting. My students could underatand these concepts easily enough. However, they had great difficulty visualizing the workings of the Flip-Flop action


Q.4 Define shift registers and explain SISO shift registers.


Answer: Shift registers: -In digital circuits, a shift register is a cascade of flip flops, sharing the same clock, in which the output of each flip-flop is connected to the "data" input of the next flip-flop in the chain, resulting in a circuit that shifts by one position the "bit array" stored in it, shifting in the data present at its input and shifting out the last bit in the array, at each transition of the clock input. More generally, a shift register may be multidimensional, such that it’s "data in" and stage outputs are themselves bit arrays: this is implemented simply by running several shift registers of the same bit-length in parallel.





Q.5 Explain how the error correction and compression take place in modems.

Answer: When transferring data over telephone lines using a modem, accidents can and do happen. Because the telephone network was not originally designed to transfer data, noise on the line can cause a modem to misinterpret the signal received from another modem causing data corruption. Under many circumstances, such corruption can cause severe problems (money lost and data rendered useless).

To combat such problems, the modem incorporates two separate methods of error correction, the Microcom Network Protocol (MNP) and the ITU-




Q.6 Explain any five common types of DAC.

Answer: A digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device for converting a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage or charges). A DAC inputs a binary number and outputs an analog voltage or current signal.


The most common types of electronic DAC’s are:

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BT0062 - Fundamentals of IT



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ASSIGNMENT

WINTER
2013
PROGRAM
BSc IT
SEMESTER
FIRST
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BT0062, Fundamentals of IT
CREDIT
3
BK ID
B0946
MAX. MARKS
60



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Q.1 Write differences between mainframe computers and supercomputers.

Answer:- Technology advances since the introduction of the mainframe computer in the mid-20th century have blurred the distinctions between mainframes and large servers, but there are still distinctions that classify some computing machines as mainframe computers -- including speed, total throughput, environmental considerations and operating systems. Mainframe computers are alive and well, evidenced by the fact that IBM announced the release the zEnterprise mainframe in July of 2010.
Both mainframes and supercomputers push the limits of what can be accomplished through computing. They are both large and powerful machines, but they are not the same thing. Because of their similarities (big black boxes hidden away in locked-up data centers), the terms are often used interchangeably by those who don’t know any better. However, they refer to very different kinds of hardware and types of computing.
The biggest distinction between mainframes and supercomputers is the type of problems they tackle. Each of these types of large computers is specially designed and optimized to perform a particular type of task, and to do it better than any other computer. Not only do supercomputers and mainframes do their tasks more efficiently than other types of computers, they do things that no other computers can do!

Q.2 i. Find 1’s complement of (100101)2
ii. Find 2’s complement of (1011010)2
iii. Perform the subtraction using 1’s complement
(11001)2-(10100)2.
Show the steps
iv. Perform subtraction using 2’s complement method
(0111)2-(0001)2
Show the steps

Answer:- (i) 1’s complement of (100101)2 = 011010
(ii)Find 2’s


Q.3 what is symbol? How to insert a symbol in a Word document?
Answer: - Sometimes the standard characters, numbers, and punctuation marks are just not enough. If you are preparing an MS Word document and need to insert a special symbol such as a copyright symbol, trademark, the ever-popular Euro symbol, and much more, here are a few ways to do it.

There are four ways to insert a symbol in a Word document


Q.4 How do you adjust the system date and time?
Answer: -Important notice for users of Office 2003    To continue receiving security updates for Office, make sure you're running Office 2003 Service Pack 3 (SP3). The support for Office 2003 ends April 8, 2014. If you’re running Office 2003 after support ends, to receive all important security updates for Office, you need to upgrade to a later version such as Office 365 or Office 2013. For more information, see Support is ending for Office 2003.
·         Click where you want to insert the date or time.
·         On the Insert menu, click Date and Time.
·         If you want to insert the date or time in
·          


Q.5 briefly explains formatting option in PowerPoint.

Answer: -Microsoft Office PowerPoint Viewer is a program used to run presentations on computers that do not have PowerPoint installed. Office PowerPoint Viewer is added by default to the same disk or network location that contains one or more presentations packaged by using the Package for CD feature.

·         PowerPoint Viewer is installed by default with a Microsoft Office 2003 installation for use with the Package for CD feature. The PowerPoint Viewer file is also available for download from the Microsoft Office Online Web site.
·          
Q.6 what is the importance of graphics multimedia? Explain the two types of graphics.

Answer:- Graphics can be used in multimedia applications as backgrounds, buttons, icons, navigational items, colors, maps, and charts; illustrations to explain concepts, information, and moods; and logos to communicate corporate image.

In addition, once images are in a digital format, image-editing software such as Adobe Photoshop can be used to edit and manipulate them even further. Using image-editing software, multimedia developers can combine text and images to create almost any
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BC0056-UNIX OPERATING SYSTEM


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ASSIGNMENT


PROGRAM
BACHELOR OF COMPUTER APPLICATION
SEMESTER
5TH
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BC0056-UNIX OPERATING SYSTEM
CREDIT
4
BK ID
B0973
MAX. MARKS
60



Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.


Q.1 Explain the Layers of UNIX Operating System in detail.

Answer: -UNIX Operating System:- Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX) is a multitasking, multi-user computer operating system that exists in many variants. The original UNIX was developed at AT&T's Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others. From the power user's or programmer's perspective, Unix systems are characterized by a modular design that is sometimes called the "Unix philosophy," meaning the OS provides a set of simple tools that each perform a limited, well-defined function, with a unified file system as the main means of communication and a shell scripting and command language to combine the tools to perform complex workflows.




Q.2 Write a short note on
a. The fork() System Call
b. The pipe() System Call

Answer: -  System call fork() is used to create processes. It takes no arguments and returns a process ID. The purpose of fork() is to create a new process, which becomes the child process of the caller. After a new child process is created, both processes will execute the next instruction following the fork() system call. Therefore, we have to distinguish the


Q.3 Describe the UNIX file system.

Answer: - Most UNIX machines store their files on magnetic disk drives. A disk drive is a device that can store information by making electrical imprints on a magnetic surface. One or more heads skim close to the spinning magnetic plate, and can detect, or change, the magnetic state of a given spot on the disk. The drives use disk controllers to position the head at the correct place at the correct time to read from, or write to, the magnetic surface of the plate. It is often possible to partition a single disk drive into more than one logical storage area. This section describes how the UNIX operating system deals with a raw storage device like a disk drive, and how it manages to make organized use of the space.



Q.4 what is a Process? How to run a process at the background?

Answer:-A process is a mechanism in an operating system that can run a series of steps. The mechanism depends on the operating system. For example, on Linux an Oracle background process is a Linux process. On Windows, an Oracle background process is a thread of execution within a process.
A background process is a computer process that runs "behind the scenes" (i.e. in the background) and without user intervention. Typical tasks for these processes include logging, system monitoring, scheduling,[2] and user notification.



Q.5 Demonstrate how and when you can use the following commands: vi, cat, chmod, grep, man, pwd, ps, kill, mkdir, rm.

Answer:-



Q.6 Write a C program that illustrates the creation of child process using fork system call. One process finds sum of even series and other process finds sum of odd series.

Answer:-

Source Code::
==========

#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>
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BC0055 - TCP/IP


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WINTER 2013, ASSIGNMENT

DRIVE
WINTER 2014
PROGRAM
BACHELOR OF COMPUTER APPLICATION
SUBJECT CODE & NAME
BC0055, TCP/IP
SEMESTER
5TH SEM
CREDITS
4
MAX. MARKS
60
BK ID

B0965


Answer all questions

1. Define PPP. What are its three components? Draw the diagram and explain PPP encapsulation frame.
Answer : PPP stands for the Point-to-Point Protocol, but even the standard that defines PPP immediately starts describing protocols that comprise it, which is why I consider it a protocol suite. At the highest level, the functions of PPP can be broken down into several components. Each of these encompasses a general class of PPP functionality, and is represented by either one protocol in the suite or a set of protocols.

Main PPP Components
The PPP standard itself describes three “main” components of PPP:




2. What do you mean by user datagram protocol? Draw and explain the diagram of UDP datagram format.

Answer: UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a communications protocol that offers a limited amount of service when messages are exchanged between computers in a network that uses the Internet Protocol (IP). UDP is an alternative to the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and, together with IP, is sometimes referred to as UDP/IP. Like the Transmission Control Protocol, UDP uses the Internet Protocol to actually get a data unit (called a



3. Explain in brief Ports and Sockets.
Answer: Ports

Each process that wants to communicate with another process identifies itself to the TCP/IP protocol suite by one or more ports. A port is a 16-bit number, used by the host-to-host protocol to identify to which higher-level protocol or application program (process) it must deliver incoming messages.



4. Give an overview of FTP. List the FTP operations and explain any two of them.

Answer: An Overview of the File Transfer Protocol

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was one of the first efforts to create a standard means of exchanging files over a TCP/IP network, so the FTP has been around since the 1970's.  The FTP was designed with as much flexibility as possible, so it could be used over networks other than TCP/IP, as well as being engineered to have the capability with exchanging files with a broad variety of machines.


5. Explain HTTP operations with necessary diagrams.

Answer: HTTP Operations
The HTTP category includes the following operations:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/technologies/tk648/tk362/tk920/images/technologies_white_paper09186a00802d5efe-10.jpg

HTTP is a good example of a protocol demonstrating RESTful design principles. In fact, proponents of REST argue that it is precisely the RESTful qualities of HTTP that enabled the rapid expansion of the World Wide Web. In keeping with REST principles,



6. What is SNMP manager? Explain types of requests to the SNMP agent.

Answer: What is SNMP?

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application–layer protocol defined by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) in RFC1157 for exchanging management information between network devices. It is a part of Transmission Control Protocol⁄Internet Protocol (TCP⁄IP) protocol suite.
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