Sunday, 26 June 2016

BT9402, Artificial Intelligence

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BT9402, Artificial Intelligence

Note: Answer all questions. Kindly note that answers for 10 marks questions should be approximately of 400 words. Each question is followed by evaluation scheme.

Question.1. Briefly explain Attributes of Artificial Intelligence (AI).

Answer:Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, an ideal "intelligent" machine is a flexible rational agent that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at an arbitrary goal. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is likely to be applied when a machine uses cutting-edge techniques to competently perform or mimic "cognitive" functions that we intuitively associate with human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".
Several methods of knowledge representation can be drawn upon. Two of these methods include:

1. Frame-based systems - are employed for building very powerful ESs. A frame specifies the attributes of a complex object and frames for various object types have specified relationships.

2. Production rules- are the \

Goals of AI

Question.2. Explain State Space Search. What do you mean by production system?

Answer:State space search is a process used in the field of computer science, including artificial intelligence (AI), in which successive configurations or states of an instance are considered, with the goal of finding a goal state with a desired property.

Problems are often

S.No Problems Techniques

1. Chess Hill climbing
2. Water Jug Best – First Search, Branch and Bound
3. 8 –

Question.3. Explain the Inheritance and Reification in semantic networks.

Answer:Semantic nets consist of nodes, links (edges) and link labels. In the semantic network diagram, nodes appear as circles or ellipses or rectangles to represent objects such as physical objects, concepts or situations. Links appear as arrows to express the relationships between objects, and link labels specify particular relations. Relationships provide the basic structure for organizing knowledge. The objects and relations involved
Figure: A Semantic Network

In the above figure all the objects are within ovals and

Question.4. Explain the two principal parts of an expert system.

Answer:Expert system is an artificial intelligence program that has expert-level knowledge about a particular domain and knows how to use its knowledge to respond properly. Domain refers to the area within which the task is being performed. Ideally the expert systems should substitute a human expert. Edward Feigenbaum of Stanford University has defined expert system as “an intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and
Components of Expert Systems
Basic Concept of an Expert System Function: The expert

Question.5. Describe the factors affecting learning performance of a system.

Answer:Meaningfulness effect: Highly meaningful words are easier to learn and remember than less meaningful words. This is true whether meaningful is measured by

1) the number of associations the learner has for the word,
2) by frequency of the word
3) or by familiarity with the sequential order of letters,
4) or the tendency of the work to elicit clear images.

An implication is that retention will be improved to the extent the user can make meaning of the material.

Serial positioneffects: Serial

Question.6. Briefly explain the hardware requirements for designing a robot.

Answer:The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Throughout history, it has been frequently assumed that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as

To correctly print Robot calculation notes, you must have a word processor supporting *.rtf (Rich Text Format) format files, such as MS Word version 6.0 or higher, or WordPad.

The most important features of Robot include:

·         A graphic editor that can define a structure completely. You can also load .DXF format files of the

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